A - Two Lucky Numbers Editorial by evima

Table of contents

If you are new to programming and at a loss, go to practice contest and try Problem A, with sample solutions in each language.

  • 1. Naive algorithm
  • 2. Intended solution
  • 3. Proof
  • 4. Hints for coming up with the solution
  • 5. Source codes

To see just the solution, go to 2. Intended solution.

1. Naive algorithm

Here is a simple algorithm to solve this problem:

  • Determine if \(x=1\) is super-lucky. (If yes, print 1 and terminate.)
  • Determine if \(x=2\) is super-lucky. (If yes, print 2 and terminate.)
  • Determine if \(x=3\) is super-lucky. (If yes, print 3 and terminate.)
  • And so on, until encountering a super-lucky number for the first time.

However, this can take long. For example, if \(A=99999999, B=40000000\), the smallest super-lucky number is 9999999920000000, with 16 digits. Computers are not infinitely fast, and a solution that performs more than \(10^8 \sim 10^9\) calculations (the number depends on programming language) will get a Time Limit Exceeded verdict. (Source Code in C++)

Let us try a different approach.

2. Intended solution

It turns out that, under the Constraints, \(500,000,000 \times B + A\) is always super-lucky.

Thus, the following program (C++) that prints this value will get accepted.

See 5. Source codes for codes in Python, Java, C.

#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

int main() {
	long long A, B; // declare variables A, B of type long long
	cin >> A >> B; // receive integers A, B
	cout << 500000000LL * B + A << endl; // LL stands for long long
	return 0;

3. Proof

Here is the proof of the solution.

Let \(X=500,000,000 \times B+A\). Then, we have \(2X = 10^9 \times B + 2A\), and the following holds.

  • The lowest \(8\) digits of \(X\) form \(A\), satisfying the first condition (\(X\) contains \(A\)).
  • Since \(A \leq 99999999\), the lowest \(9\) digits of \(2X\) form \(2A\), and the digits above them form \(B\), satisfying the second condition (\(2X\) contains \(B\)).

For reference, here are the values of \(X\) and \(2X\) in some cases.

4. Hints for coming up with the solution

In a problem that asks you to “construct” one solution, it is typically helpful to consider just part of the given conditions and then modify the provisional solution a bit. In this problem, it allows us to reach the intended solution as follows.

Step 1: Consider just the first condition

What integer \(x\) satisfies the first condition (\(x\) contains \(A\))? Obviously, \(x=A\) does.

Step 2: Possible modification

Now, consider modifying \(x\) a bit so that it still satisfies the condition. We can see that modifying the part above the lowest \(9\) digits does not break it. (For example, when \(A=1234567\), changing it to \(x=1001234567\) or \(x=869001234567\) is fine.)

Step 3. Add the second condition

Now, consider making the upper digits of \(2x\) contain \(B\). It should be possible to derive \(x=500,000,000 \times B+A\).

This pattern of thought can also be used in other problems such as ARC 117 A - God Sequence.

5. Source codes

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