Contest Duration: - (local time) (100 minutes) Back to Home

Submission #856366

Source Code Expand

Copy
```using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Numerics;
using System.Text;
using Problem = Tmp.Problem;
namespace Tmp
{
//using GeometryLong;
class Problem : IDisposable
{
bool IsGCJ;
int Repeat;
Scanner sc;
Printer pr;
public Problem(bool isGCJ, Scanner scanner, Printer printer)
{
sc = scanner;
pr = printer;
IsGCJ = isGCJ;
if (isGCJ) Repeat = sc.Get<int>();
}
public Problem(bool isGCJ) : this(isGCJ, new Scanner(), new Printer()) { }
public Problem(bool isGCJ, Scanner scanner) : this(isGCJ, scanner, new Printer()) { }
public Problem(bool isGCJ, Printer printer) : this(isGCJ, new Scanner(), printer) { }
public void Solve()
{
if (IsGCJ) for (var i = 0; i < Repeat; i++) { Read(); pr.Write("Case #" + (i + 1) + ": "); SolveOne(); }
else SolveOne();
}
public void Dispose()
{
sc.Dispose();
pr.Dispose();
}
public int Size { get { return 1; } }
public const long Mod = 1000000007;
RandomSFMT rand = Program.rand;
long N, S;
{
}
void SolveOne()
{
for (var b = 2L; b * b <= N; b++) if (F(b, N) == S) { pr.WriteLine(b); return; }
var div = new SortedSet<long>();
var d = N - S;
if (d > 0)
{
for (var i = 1L; i * i <= d; i++) if (d % i == 0) { div.Add(i); div.Add(d / i); }
foreach (var x in div)
{
var b = x + 1;
if (F(b, N) == S) { pr.WriteLine(b); return; }
}
}
if (F(N + 1, N) == S) { pr.WriteLine(N + 1); return; }
pr.WriteLine(-1);
}
long F(long b, long n)
{
var s = 0L;
while (n > 0) { s += n % b; n /= b; }
return s;
}
}
}
class Eq : IEqualityComparer<List<int>>
{
public bool Equals(List<int> x, List<int> y)
{
if (x == null || y == null) return x == y;
if (x.Count != y.Count) return false;
for (var i = 0; i < x.Count; i++) if (x[i] != y[i]) return false;
return true;
}
public int GetHashCode(List<int> obj)
{
var x = obj.Count.GetHashCode();
foreach (var i in obj) x ^= i.GetHashCode();
return x;
}
}
/*class MultiSortedSet<T> : IEnumerable<T>, ICollection<T>
{
public IComparer<T> Comparer { get; private set; }
private SortedSet<T> keys;
private Dictionary<T, int> mult;
public int Multiplicity(T item) { return mult[item]; }
public int Count { get; private set; }
public MultiSortedSet(IComparer<T> comp)
{
keys = new SortedSet<T>(Comparer = comp);
mult = new Dictionary<T, int>();
}
public MultiSortedSet(Comparison<T> comp) : this(Comparer<T>.Create(comp)) { }
public MultiSortedSet() : this(Func.DefaultComparison<T>()) { }
private void Add(T item, int num)
{
Count += num;
else mult[item] += num;
}
public void AddRange(IEnumerable<T> list) { foreach (var x in list) Add(x); }
public bool Remove(T item)
{
if (!keys.Contains(item)) return false;
Count--;
if (mult[item] == 1) { keys.Remove(item); mult.Remove(item); }
else mult[item]--;
return true;
}
public bool Overlaps(IEnumerable<T> other) { return keys.Overlaps(other); }
public bool IsSupersetOf(IEnumerable<T> other) { return keys.IsSupersetOf(other); }
public bool IsSubsetOf(IEnumerable<T> other) { return keys.IsSubsetOf(other); }
public bool IsProperSubsetOf(IEnumerable<T> other) { return keys.IsProperSubsetOf(other); }
public bool IsProperSupersetOf(IEnumerable<T> other) { return keys.IsProperSupersetOf(other); }
public void ExceptWith(IEnumerable<T> other) { foreach (var x in other) if (Contains(x)) Remove(x); }
public void IntersectWith(IEnumerable<T> other)
{
var next = new MultiSortedSet<T>(Comparer);
foreach (var x in other) if (Contains(x) && !next.Contains(x)) next.Add(x, mult[x]);
keys = next.keys; mult = next.mult;
}
public void CopyTo(T[] array) { CopyTo(array, 0); }
public void CopyTo(T[] array, int index) { foreach (var item in array) array[index++] = item; }
public void CopyTo(T[] array, int index, int count) { var i = 0; foreach (var item in array) { if (i++ >= count) return; array[index++] = item; } }
public bool Contains(T item) { return keys.Contains(item); }
public void Clear() { keys.Clear(); mult.Clear(); Count = 0; }
public IEnumerator<T> Reverse() { foreach (var x in keys.Reverse()) for (var i = 0; i < mult[x]; i++) yield return x; }
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() { foreach (var x in keys) for (var i = 0; i < mult[x]; i++) yield return x; }
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return GetEnumerator(); }
public T Max { get { return keys.Max; } }
public T Min { get { return keys.Min; } }
public bool IsReadOnly { get { return false; } }
}*/
class SkewHeap<T> : IEnumerable<T>
{
class Node : IEnumerable<T>
{
public Node l, r;
public T val;
public Node(T x) { l = r = null; val = x; }
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator()
{
if (l != null) foreach (var x in l) yield return x;
yield return val;
if (r != null) foreach (var x in r) yield return x;
}
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return (IEnumerator)GetEnumerator(); }
}
public int Count { get; private set; }
Comparison<T> comp;
public bool IsEmpty { get { return head != null; } }
public SkewHeap(Comparison<T> c) { comp = c; Count = 0; }
public SkewHeap() : this(Func.DefaultComparison<T>()) { }
public SkewHeap(IComparer<T> c) : this(Func.ToComparison(c)) { }
private SkewHeap(Comparison<T> c, Node h) : this(c) { head = h; }
public void Push(T x) { var n = new Node(x); head = Meld(head, n); Count++; }
public T Peek() { return head.val; }
// a.comp must be equivalent to b.comp
// a, b will be destroyed
public static SkewHeap<T> Meld(SkewHeap<T> a, SkewHeap<T> b) { return new SkewHeap<T>(a.comp, a.Meld(a.head, b.head)); }
Node Meld(Node a, Node b)
{
if (a == null) return b;
else if (b == null) return a;
if (comp(a.val, b.val) > 0) Func.Swap(ref a, ref b);
a.r = Meld(a.r, b);
Func.Swap(ref a.l, ref a.r);
return a;
}
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() { return head.GetEnumerator(); }
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return (IEnumerator)GetEnumerator(); }
}
// [0, Size) の整数の集合を表す
class BITSet : BinaryIndexedTree
{
public BITSet(int size) : base(size) { }
public bool Contains(int item) { return Sum(item, item + 1) > 0; }
public int Count(int item) { return Sum(item, item + 1); }
// 順位 = item が小さい方から何番目か(0-indexed)
public int GetRank(int item) { return Sum(0, item); }
public void Remove(int item) { Add(item, -1); }
public void RemoveAll(int item) { Add(item, -Count(item)); }
// 0-indexed で順位が rank のものを求める
// ない場合は Size が返る
public int GetValue(int rank) { return Func.FirstBinary(0, Size, t => Sum(0, t + 1) >= rank + 1); }
}
class RangeBIT
{
public int N { get; private set; }
long[,] bit;
public RangeBIT(int N) { bit = new long[2, this.N = N + 1]; }
public RangeBIT(int[] array) : this(array.Length)
{
for (var i = 1; i < N; i++) bit[0, i] = array[i - 1];
for (var i = 1; i < N - 1; i++) if (i + (i & (-i)) < N) bit[0, i + (i & (-i))] += bit[0, i];
}
public RangeBIT(long[] array) : this(array.Length)
{
for (var i = 1; i < N; i++) bit[0, i] = array[i - 1];
for (var i = 1; i < N - 1; i++) if (i + (i & (-i)) < N) bit[0, i + (i & (-i))] += bit[0, i];
}
public void Add(int from, int to, long value)
{
Add2(0, from + 1, -value * from);
Add2(0, to + 1, value * to);
}
void Add2(int which, int i, long value) { while (i < N) { bit[which, i] += value; i += i & (-i); } }
long Sum(int to) { return Sum2(0, to) + Sum2(1, to) * to; }
public long Sum(int from, int to) { return Sum(to) - Sum(from); }
long Sum2(int which, int i) { var sum = 0L; while (i > 0) { sum += bit[which, i]; i -= i & (-i); } return sum; }
}
class RMQ
{
int N2;
int[] segtree;
public RMQ(int N) : this(new int[N]) { }
public RMQ(int[] array)
{
N2 = 1;
while (N2 < array.Length) N2 <<= 1;
segtree = new int[2 * N2 - 1];
for (var i = 0; i < 2 * N2 - 1; i++) segtree[i] = Func.Inf;
for (var i = 0; i < array.Length; i++) segtree[i + N2 - 1] = array[i];
for (var i = N2 - 2; i >= 0; i--) segtree[i] = Math.Min(segtree[2 * i + 1], segtree[2 * i + 2]);
}
public void Update(int index, int value)
{
index += N2 - 1;
segtree[index] = value;
while (index > 0)
{
index = (index - 1) / 2;
segtree[index] = Math.Min(segtree[index * 2 + 1], segtree[index * 2 + 2]);
}
}
public int this[int n] { get { return Min(n, n + 1); } set { Update(n, value); } }
public int Min(int from, int to) { return Min(from, to, 0, 0, N2); }
int Min(int from, int to, int node, int l, int r)
{
if (to <= l || r <= from) return Func.Inf;
else if (from <= l && r <= to) return segtree[node];
else return Math.Min(Min(from, to, 2 * node + 1, l, (l + r) >> 1), Min(from, to, 2 * node + 2, (l + r) >> 1, r));
}
}
class Program
{
public static RandomSFMT rand = new RandomSFMT();
public static bool IsJudgeMode = true;
public static bool IsGCJMode = false;
public static bool IsSolveCreated = true;
static void Main()
{
if (IsJudgeMode)
if (IsGCJMode) using (var problem = new Problem(true, new Scanner("C-large-practice.in.txt"), new Printer("output.txt"))) problem.Solve();
else using (var problem = new Problem(false, new Printer())) problem.Solve();
else
{
var num = 1;
int size = 0;
decimal time = 0;
for (var tmp = 0; tmp < num; tmp++)
{
using (var P = IsSolveCreated ? new Problem(false, new Scanner("input.txt"), new Printer()) : new Problem(false))
{
size = P.Size;
time += Func.MeasureTime(() => P.Solve());
}
}
Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}ms", size, time / num);
}
}
}
class BinaryIndexedTree3D
{
public int X { get; private set; }
public int Y { get; private set; }
public int Z { get; private set; }
int[,,] bit;
public BinaryIndexedTree3D(int X, int Y, int Z)
{
this.X = X; this.Y = Y; this.Z = Z;
bit = new int[X + 1, Y + 1, Z + 1];
}
public BinaryIndexedTree3D(int[,,] array)
: this(array.GetLength(0), array.GetLength(1), array.GetLength(2))
{
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++) for (var z = 0; z < Z; z++) Add(x, y, z, array[x, y, z]);
}
public void Add(int x, int y, int z, int value)
{
for (var i = x + 1; i <= X; i += i & (-i)) for (var j = y + 1; j <= Y; j += j & (-j)) for (var k = z + 1; k <= Z; k += k & (-k)) bit[i, j, k] += value;
}
public int Sum(int x0, int y0, int z0, int x1, int y1, int z1)
{
return Sum(x1, y1, z1) - Sum(x0, y1, z1) - Sum(x1, y0, z1) - Sum(x1, y1, z0) + Sum(x1, y0, z0) + Sum(x0, y1, z0) + Sum(x0, y0, z1) - Sum(x0, y0, z0);
}
int Sum(int x, int y, int z)
{
var sum = 0;
for (var i = x; i > 0; i -= i & (-i)) for (var j = y; j > 0; j -= j & (-j)) for (var k = y; k > 0; k -= k & (-k)) sum += bit[i, j, k];
return sum;
}
}
class BinaryIndexedTree2D
{
public int X { get; private set; }
public int Y { get; private set; }
int[,] bit;
public BinaryIndexedTree2D(int X, int Y)
{
this.X = X; this.Y = Y;
bit = new int[X + 1, Y + 1];
}
public BinaryIndexedTree2D(int[,] array)
: this(array.GetLength(0), array.GetLength(1))
{
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++) Add(x, y, array[x, y]);
}
public void Add(int x, int y, int value) { for (var i = x + 1; i <= X; i += i & (-i)) for (var j = y + 1; j <= Y; j += j & (-j)) bit[i, j] += value; }
public int Sum(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1) { return Sum(x0, y0) + Sum(x1, y1) - Sum(x0, y1) - Sum(x1, y0); }
int Sum(int x, int y) { var sum = 0; for (var i = x; i > 0; i -= i & (-i)) for (var j = y; j > 0; j -= j & (-j)) sum += bit[i, j]; return sum; }
}
class BinaryIndexedTree
{
public int Size { get; private set; }
int[] bit;
public BinaryIndexedTree(int size)
{
Size = size;
bit = new int[size + 1];
}
public BinaryIndexedTree(int[] array) : this(array.Length)
{
for (var i = 0; i < Size; i++) bit[i + 1] = array[i];
for (var i = 1; i < Size; i++) if (i + (i & (-i)) <= Size) bit[i + (i & (-i))] += bit[i];
}
// index is 0-indexed
public void Add(int index, int value) { for (var i = index + 1; i <= Size; i += i & (-i)) bit[i] += value; }
// from, to is 0-indexed
// from is inclusive, to is exclusive
public int Sum(int from, int to) { return Sum(to) - Sum(from); }
int Sum(int to) { var sum = 0; for (var i = to; i > 0; i -= i & (-i)) sum += bit[i]; return sum; }
}
class Amoeba
{
public const int Dimension = 2;
public const double Alpha = 1;  // reflection
public const double Beta = 1 + 2.0 / Dimension; // expansion
public const double Gamma = 0.75 - 0.5 / Dimension; // contraction
public const double Delta = 1 - 1.0 / Dimension;    // shrink
public Pair<AmoebaState, double>[] a;
public AmoebaState m;
public void Initiate()
{
Array.Sort(a, (x, y) => x.Second.CompareTo(y.Second));
m = new AmoebaState();
for (var i = 0; i < Dimension; i++) m.Add(a[i].First);
m.Multiply(1.0 / Dimension);
}
void PartialSort(int i, int j) { if (a[i].Second > a[j].Second) a.Swap(i, j); }
void Accept(AmoebaState point, double value)
{
var tmp = Func.FirstBinary(0, Dimension, x => a[x].Second >= value);
if (tmp != Dimension) m.Add((point - a[Dimension - 1].First) / Dimension);
for (var i = Dimension; i > tmp; i--) a[i] = a[i - 1];
a[tmp].First = point;
a[tmp].Second = value;
}
public void Search()
{
var r = m + Alpha * (m - a[Dimension].First);
var fr = r.Func();
if (a[0].Second <= fr && fr < a[Dimension - 1].Second) { Accept(r, fr); return; }
var diff = r - m;
if (fr < a[0].Second)
{
var e = m + Beta * diff;
var fe = e.Func();
if (fe < fr) Accept(e, fe);
else Accept(r, fr);
}
else
{
var tmp = Gamma * diff;
var o = m + tmp;
var fo = o.Func();
var i = m - tmp;
var fi = i.Func();
if (fi < fo) { o = i; fo = fi; }
if (fo < a[Dimension - 1].Second) Accept(o, fo);
else Shrink();
}
}
void Shrink()
{
var tmp = (1 - Delta) * a[0].First;
for (var i = 1; i <= Dimension; i++) { a[i].First.Multiply(Delta); a[i].First.Add(tmp); a[i].Second = a[i].First.Func(); }
Initiate();
}
}
class AmoebaState
{
public static int Dimension = 2;
public double[] vec;
public AmoebaState() { vec = new double[Dimension]; }
public AmoebaState(params double[] elements) : this() { elements.CopyTo(vec, 0); }
public double this[int n] { get { return vec[n]; } set { vec[n] = value; } }
public void Multiply(double r) { for (var i = 0; i < Dimension; i++) vec[i] *= r; }
public void Add(AmoebaState v) { for (var i = 0; i < Dimension; i++) vec[i] += v.vec[i]; }
public static AmoebaState operator +(AmoebaState p) { return new AmoebaState(p.vec); }
public static AmoebaState operator -(AmoebaState p) { var tmp = new AmoebaState(p.vec); tmp.Multiply(-1); return tmp; }
public static AmoebaState operator /(AmoebaState p, double r) { var tmp = new AmoebaState(p.vec); tmp.Multiply(1 / r); return tmp; }
public static AmoebaState operator *(double r, AmoebaState p) { var tmp = new AmoebaState(p.vec); tmp.Multiply(r); return tmp; }
public static AmoebaState operator *(AmoebaState p, double r) { return r * p; }
public static AmoebaState operator +(AmoebaState p, AmoebaState q) { var tmp = +p; tmp.Add(q); return tmp; }
public static AmoebaState operator -(AmoebaState p, AmoebaState q) { var tmp = -q; tmp.Add(p); return tmp; }
public double Func()
{
return 0;//P.Func(vec[0], vec[1]);
}
public static Problem P;
}
class BucketList<T> : ICollection<T>, IEnumerable<T>, ICollection, IEnumerable
{
public Comparison<T> comp { get; protected set; }
public int BucketSize = 20;
public int Count { get { var sum = 0; var bucket = Head; while (bucket != null) { sum += bucket.Count; bucket = bucket.Next; } return sum; } }
public int NumOfBucket { get; protected set; }
public Bucket<T> Head { get; protected set; }
public Bucket<T> Tail { get; protected set; }
public BucketList(IComparer<T> comp) : this(comp.ToComparison()) { }
public BucketList(Comparison<T> comp = null) { Head = null; Tail = null; NumOfBucket = 0; this.comp = comp == null ? Func.DefaultComparison<T>() : comp; }
protected void AddAfter(Bucket<T> pos, Bucket<T> bucket)
{
Debug.Assert(bucket != null && bucket.Count > 0 && pos != null && pos.Parent == this && comp(pos.Tail.Value, bucket.Head.Value) <= 0
&& (pos.Next == null || comp(pos.Next.Head.Value, bucket.Tail.Value) >= 0));
bucket.Parent = this;
bucket.Prev = pos;
bucket.Next = pos.Next;
if (pos != Tail) pos.Next.Prev = bucket;
else Tail = bucket;
pos.Next = bucket;
NumOfBucket++;
}
protected void AddBefore(Bucket<T> pos, Bucket<T> bucket)
{
Debug.Assert(bucket != null && bucket.Count > 0 && pos != null && pos.Parent == this && comp(pos.Head.Value, bucket.Tail.Value) >= 0
&& (pos.Prev == null || comp(pos.Prev.Tail.Value, bucket.Head.Value) <= 0));
bucket.Parent = this;
bucket.Prev = pos.Prev;
bucket.Next = pos;
if (pos != Head) pos.Prev.Next = bucket;
pos.Prev = bucket;
NumOfBucket++;
}
protected void AddAfter(Bucket<T> bucket, BucketNode<T> node)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && bucket != null && bucket.Parent == this && node.Parent.Parent == this && comp(bucket.Tail.Value, node.Value) <= 0
&& (bucket.Next == null || comp(bucket.Next.Head.Value, node.Value) >= 0));
var tmp = new Bucket<T>(this, bucket, bucket.Next);
tmp.InitiateWith(node);
if (bucket != Tail) bucket.Next.Prev = tmp;
else Tail = tmp;
bucket.Next = tmp;
NumOfBucket++;
}
protected void AddBefore(Bucket<T> bucket, BucketNode<T> node)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && bucket != null && bucket.Parent == this && node.Parent.Parent == this && comp(bucket.Head.Value, node.Value) >= 0
&& (bucket.Prev == null || comp(bucket.Prev.Tail.Value, node.Value) <= 0));
var tmp = new Bucket<T>(this, bucket.Prev, bucket);
tmp.InitiateWith(node);
if (bucket != Head) bucket.Prev.Next = tmp;
bucket.Prev = tmp;
NumOfBucket++;
}
public void AddAfter(BucketNode<T> node, T item)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && node.Parent.Parent == this && comp(node.Value, item) <= 0
&& ((node.Next == null && (node.Parent.Next == null || comp(node.Parent.Next.Head.Value, item) >= 0))
|| comp(node.Next.Value, item) >= 0));
var bucket = node.Parent;
var tmp = new BucketNode<T>(item, bucket, node, node.Next);
{
if (node.Next == null && (bucket.Next == null || bucket.Next.Count >= BucketSize)) AddAfter(bucket, tmp);
else
{
node.Next.Prev = tmp;
node.Next = tmp;
while (node.Next.Next != null) node = node.Next;
item = node.Next.Value;
bucket.Tail = node;
node.Next = null;
}
}
}
public void AddBefore(BucketNode<T> node, T item)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && node.Parent.Parent == this && comp(node.Value, item) >= 0
&& ((node.Prev == null && (node.Parent.Prev == null || comp(node.Parent.Prev.Tail.Value, item) <= 0))
|| comp(node.Prev.Value, item) <= 0));
var bucket = node.Parent;
var tmp = new BucketNode<T>(item, bucket, node.Prev, node);
{
if (node.Prev == null && (bucket.Prev == null || bucket.Prev.Count >= BucketSize)) AddBefore(bucket, tmp);
else if (node.Prev == null) AddAfter(bucket.Prev.Tail, item);
else
{
node.Prev.Next = tmp;
node.Prev = tmp;
while (node.Prev.Prev != null) node = node.Prev;
item = node.Prev.Value;
node.Prev = null;
}
}
}
// (node, index)
// index is the position of node in node.Parent
public Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int> UpperBound(Predicate<T> pred)
{
if (NumOfBucket == 0) return null;
if (pred(Tail.Tail.Value)) return new Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int>(Tail.Tail, Tail.Count - 1);
var bucket = Tail;
while (bucket.Prev != null && !pred(bucket.Prev.Tail.Value)) bucket = bucket.Prev;
var node = bucket.Tail;
var index = bucket.Count - 1;
while (node.Prev != null && !pred(node.Prev.Value)) { node = node.Prev; index--; }
if (node.Prev == null) return bucket.Prev == null ? null : new Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int>(bucket.Prev.Tail, bucket.Prev.Count - 1);
else return new Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int>(node.Prev, index - 1);
}
public Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int> UpperBound(T item) { return LowerBound(x => comp(x, item) <= 0); }
// (node, index)
// index is the position of node in node.Parent
public Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int> LowerBound(Predicate<T> pred)
{
if (NumOfBucket == 0) return null;
while (bucket.Next != null && !pred(bucket.Next.Head.Value)) bucket = bucket.Next;
var index = 0;
while (node.Next != null && !pred(node.Next.Value)) { node = node.Next; index++; }
if (node.Next == null) return bucket.Next == null ? null : new Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int>(bucket.Next.Head, 0);
else return new Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int>(node.Next, index + 1);
}
public Tuple<BucketNode<T>, int> LowerBound(T item) { return LowerBound(x => comp(x, item) >= 0); }
public void InitiateWith(Bucket<T> bucket)
{
Debug.Assert(bucket != null && bucket.Count > 0);
RemoveAll();
bucket.Parent = this;
NumOfBucket++;
}
public void InitiateWith(T item)
{
RemoveAll();
Head = Tail = new Bucket<T>(this, null, null);
NumOfBucket++;
}
public void AddLast(Bucket<T> bucket) { if (NumOfBucket == 0) InitiateWith(bucket); else AddAfter(Tail, bucket); }
public void AddLast(T item) { if (NumOfBucket == 0) InitiateWith(item); else AddAfter(Tail.Tail, item); }
public void Clear() { RemoveAll(); }
public void RemoveAll() { Head = Tail = null; NumOfBucket = 0; }
public void RemoveFirst() { if (NumOfBucket == 0) throw new InvalidOperationException(); else Remove(Head.Head); }
public void RemoveLast() { if (NumOfBucket == 0) throw new InvalidOperationException(); else Remove(Tail.Tail); }
// remove item and return whether item was removed or not
public bool Remove(T item) { var node = Find(item); if (node != null) Remove(node); return node != null; }
public void Remove(Bucket<T> bucket)
{
Debug.Assert(bucket != null && bucket.Parent == this);
NumOfBucket--;
if (bucket == Head && bucket == Tail) { Head = Tail = null; }
else if (bucket == Tail) { Tail.Prev.Next = null; Tail = Tail.Prev; }
else { bucket.Prev.Next = bucket.Next; bucket.Next.Prev = bucket.Prev; }
}
public void Remove(BucketNode<T> node) { Debug.Assert(node != null && node.Parent.Parent == this); if (!node.Parent.Remove(node)) Remove(node.Parent); }
protected void RemoveRange(Bucket<T> from, Bucket<T> to, int indexFrom = -1, int indexTo = -1)
{
Debug.Assert(from != null && to != null && from.Parent == this && to.Parent == this);
if (indexFrom < 0) indexFrom = from.Index;
if (indexTo < 0) indexTo = to.Index;
if (indexFrom == 0 && indexTo == NumOfBucket - 1) { Clear(); return; }
else if (indexFrom == 0) { Head = to.Next; Head.Prev = null; }
else if (indexTo == NumOfBucket - 1) { Tail = from.Prev; Tail.Next = null; }
else { from.Prev.Next = to.Next; to.Next.Prev = from.Prev; }
NumOfBucket -= indexTo - indexFrom + 1;
}
public void RemoveRange(BucketNode<T> from, BucketNode<T> to, int indexFrom = -1, int indexTo = -1)
{
Debug.Assert(from != null && to != null && from.Parent.Parent == this && to.Parent.Parent == this);
if (indexFrom < 0) indexFrom = from.Index;
if (indexTo < 0) indexTo = to.Index;
var bucketFrom = from.Parent;
var bucketTo = to.Parent;
if (bucketFrom == bucketTo)
{
var bucket = bucketFrom;
if (indexFrom == 0 && indexTo == bucket.Count - 1) Remove(bucket);
else bucket.RemoveRange(from, to, indexFrom, indexTo);
}
else
{
var bf = bucketFrom.Index;
var bt = bucketTo.Index;
Debug.Assert(bf < bt);
if (bt > bf + 1) RemoveRange(bucketFrom.Next, bucketTo.Prev, bf + 1, bt - 1);
if (indexFrom == 0) { Remove(bucketFrom); RemoveRange(bucketTo.Head, to, 0, indexTo); }
else if (indexTo == bucketTo.Count - 1) { Remove(bucketTo); RemoveRange(from, bucketFrom.Tail, indexFrom, bucketFrom.Count - 1); }
else
{
bucketFrom.RemoveRange(from, bucketFrom.Tail, indexFrom, bucketFrom.Count - 1);
if (bucketFrom.Count + bucketTo.Count < BucketSize) Adjust();
}
}
}
{
var array = this.ToArray();
Clear();
var length = array.Length;
BucketSize = (int)Math.Sqrt(length + 1);
var count = (length + BucketSize - 1) / BucketSize;
for (var i = 0; i < count; i++)
{
var bucket = new Bucket<T>(this, null, null);
var lim = Math.Min(BucketSize * (i + 1), length);
for (var j = BucketSize * i; j < lim; j++) bucket.AddLast(array[j]);
}
}
public BucketNode<T> Find(T item) { var node = LowerBound(item); if (node == null || comp(node.Item1.Value, item) != 0) return null; else return node.Item1; }
public BucketNode<T> FindLast(T item) { var node = UpperBound(item); if (node == null || comp(node.Item1.Value, item) != 0) return null; else return node.Item1; }
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator()
{
while (bucket != null)
{
while (node != null) { yield return node.Value; node = node.Next; }
bucket = bucket.Next;
}
}
public void Add(T item) { var ub = LowerBound(item); if (ub != null) AddBefore(ub.Item1, item); else AddLast(item); }
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return GetEnumerator(); }
public void CopyTo(Array array, int index) { foreach (var item in this) array.SetValue(item, index++); }
public bool IsSynchronized { get { return false; } }
public object SyncRoot { get { return this; } }
public bool IsReadOnly { get { return false; } }
public bool Contains(T item) { return Find(item) != null; }
public void CopyTo(T[] array, int index) { foreach (var item in this) array[index++] = item; }
public override string ToString()
{
var sb = new StringBuilder();
sb.Append("<Start>\n");
while (node != null) { sb.Append(node.ToString() + "\n"); node = node.Next; }
sb.Append("<end>");
return sb.ToString();
}
public bool Check()
{
if (NumOfBucket == 0) return Head == null && Tail == null;
if (Head.Prev != null || Tail.Next != null) return false;
var c = 1;
while (bucket.Next != null)
{
if (!CheckConnection(bucket) || !CheckBucket(bucket)) return false;
bucket = bucket.Next;
c++;
}
return bucket == Tail && CheckBucket(Tail) && c == NumOfBucket;
}
bool CheckConnection(Bucket<T> bucket)
{
if (bucket.Next == null) return bucket == Tail;
else return bucket.Next.Prev == bucket && comp(bucket.Tail.Value, bucket.Next.Head.Value) <= 0;
}
bool CheckBucket(Bucket<T> bucket) { return bucket.Count > 0 && bucket.Count <= BucketSize && bucket.Parent == this; }
public void Start(Func<string, T> parser, Func<T> random)
{
BucketNode<T> x = null, y = null;
var help = true;
while (true)
{
Console.Clear();
Console.WriteLine("{0} items, {1} buckets(size : {2})", Count, NumOfBucket, BucketSize);
Console.WriteLine(this);
Console.WriteLine(Check() ? "OK!" : "NG!");
if (help)
{
Console.WriteLine("when val is omitted, random value will be used.");
Console.WriteLine("r val : remove val");
Console.WriteLine("c : clear");
Console.WriteLine("h : disable/enable help message");
Console.WriteLine("x : set x");
Console.WriteLine("x h : set x to head");
Console.WriteLine("x t : set x to tail");
Console.WriteLine("x n : set x to x.next");
Console.WriteLine("x p : set x to x.prev");
Console.WriteLine("x f val : set x to lower bound of val");
Console.WriteLine("y : set y");
Console.WriteLine("x : exchange x and y");
Console.WriteLine("d : remove from x to y");
Console.WriteLine("q : quit");
}
if (x != null) Console.WriteLine("x = {0} <- {1}", x.Value, x.Parent);
if (y != null) Console.WriteLine("y = {0} <- {1}", y.Value, y.Parent);
Console.Write("enter command > ");
if (command[0].Length > 1 && command[0][1] == 'd')
Console.WriteLine("debug...");
else if (command[0].StartsWith("r")) { if (command.Length > 1) Remove(parser(command[1])); else Remove(random()); }
else if (command[0].StartsWith("c")) Clear();
else if (command[0].StartsWith("h")) help = !help;
else if (command[0].StartsWith("x")) SetVariable(command, ref x, parser, random);
else if (command[0].StartsWith("y")) SetVariable(command, ref y, parser, random);
else if (command[0].StartsWith("e")) { var tmp = x; x = y; y = tmp; }
else if (command[0].StartsWith("d")) { RemoveRange(x, y, x.Index, y.Index); x = null; y = null; }
else if (command[0].StartsWith("q")) break;
}
}
void SetVariable(string[] command, ref BucketNode<T> x, Func<string, T> parser, Func<T> random)
{
else if (command[1].StartsWith("t")) x = Tail.Tail;
else if (command[1].StartsWith("n"))
{
if (x.Next != null) x = x.Next;
else if (x.Parent.Next != null) x = x.Parent.Next.Head;
else { Console.WriteLine("x is the last element..."); Console.ReadKey(true); }
}
else if (command[1].StartsWith("p"))
{
if (x.Prev != null) x = x.Prev;
else if (x.Parent.Prev != null) x = x.Parent.Prev.Tail;
else { Console.WriteLine("x is the first element..."); Console.ReadKey(true); }
}
else if (command[1].StartsWith("f")) { if (command.Length > 2) x = LowerBound(parser(command[2])).Item1; else x = LowerBound(random()).Item1; }
}
}
// bucket cannot be empty
class Bucket<T>
{
public BucketList<T> Parent;
public int Count;
public Bucket<T> Prev;
public Bucket<T> Next;
public BucketNode<T> Tail;
public Bucket(BucketList<T> parent, Bucket<T> prev, Bucket<T> next) { Parent = parent; Prev = prev; Next = next; Head = null; Tail = null; }
public int Index
{
get
{
var count = 0;
while (node != this) { node = node.Next; count++; }
return count;
}
}
public bool AddAfter(BucketNode<T> node, T item)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && node.Parent == this && Parent.comp(node.Value, item) <= 0
&& ((node.Next == null && (Next == null || Parent.comp(Next.Head.Value, item) >= 0))
|| Parent.comp(node.Next.Value, item) >= 0));
if (Count < Parent.BucketSize)
{
var tmp = new BucketNode<T>(item, this, node, node.Next);
if (node.Next != null) node.Next.Prev = tmp;
else Tail = tmp;
node.Next = tmp;
Count++;
return true;
}
return false;
}
public bool AddBefore(BucketNode<T> node, T item)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && node.Parent == this && Parent.comp(node.Value, item) >= 0
&& ((node.Prev == null && (Prev == null || Parent.comp(Prev.Tail.Value, item) <= 0))
|| Parent.comp(node.Prev.Value, item) <= 0));
if (Count < Parent.BucketSize)
{
var tmp = new BucketNode<T>(item, this, node.Prev, node);
if (node.Prev != null) node.Prev.Next = tmp;
node.Prev = tmp;
Count++;
return true;
}
else return false;
}
public bool InitiateWith(BucketNode<T> node)
{
node.Parent = this;
node.Prev = node.Next = null;
Count++;
return true;
}
public bool InitiateWith(T item) { return InitiateWith(new BucketNode<T>(item, this, null, null)); }
public void RemoveAll() { Head = Tail = null; Count = 0; }
public bool AddLast(T item) { if (Count == 0) return InitiateWith(item); else return AddAfter(Tail, item); }
public bool Remove(BucketNode<T> node)
{
Debug.Assert(node != null && node.Parent == this);
if (Count > 1)
{
Count--;
else if (node == Tail) { Tail.Prev.Next = null; Tail = Tail.Prev; }
else { node.Prev.Next = node.Next; node.Next.Prev = node.Prev; }
return true;
}
else return false;
}
public bool RemoveRange(BucketNode<T> from, BucketNode<T> to, int indexFrom = -1, int indexTo = -1)
{
Debug.Assert(from != null && to != null && from.Parent == this && to.Parent == this);
if (indexFrom < 0) indexFrom = from.Index;
if (indexTo < 0) indexTo = to.Index;
if (indexTo == 0 && indexFrom == Count - 1) return false;
else if (indexFrom == 0) { Head = to.Next; Head.Prev = null; }
else if (indexTo == Count - 1) { Tail = from.Prev; Tail.Next = null; }
else { from.Prev.Next = to.Next; to.Next.Prev = from.Prev; }
Count -= indexTo - indexFrom + 1;
return true;
}
public override string ToString()
{
var sb = new StringBuilder();
sb.Append("[");
while (node != null) { sb.Append(node.ToString() + ", "); node = node.Next; }
if (sb.Length > 1) sb.Remove(sb.Length - 2, 2);
sb.Append("]");
return sb.ToString();
}
public bool Check()
{
if (Count == 0) return Head == null && Tail == null;
if (Head.Prev != null || Tail.Next != null) return false;
var c = 1;
while (node.Next != null)
{
if (!CheckConnection(node) || !CheckNode(node)) return false;
node = node.Next;
c++;
}
return node == Tail && CheckNode(Tail) && c == Count;
}
bool CheckConnection(BucketNode<T> node)
{
if (node.Next == null) return node == Tail;
else return node.Next.Prev == node && Parent.comp(node.Value, node.Next.Value) <= 0;
}
bool CheckNode(BucketNode<T> node) { return node.Parent == this; }
}
class BucketNode<T>
{
public T Value;
public Bucket<T> Parent;
public BucketNode<T> Prev;
public BucketNode<T> Next;
public BucketNode(T item, Bucket<T> parent, BucketNode<T> prev, BucketNode<T> next) { Value = item; Parent = parent; Prev = prev; Next = next; }
public int Index
{
get
{
var count = 0;
while (node != this) { node = node.Next; count++; }
return count;
}
}
public override string ToString() { return Value.ToString(); }
}
class UndirectedGraph<V, E> : DirectedGraph<V, E>
{
public UndirectedGraph(int V) : base(V) { }
public UndirectedGraph(int V, IEnumerable<EdgeInfo<E>> edges) : base(V, edges) { }
{
}
public bool IsConnected
{
get
{
if (numberOfNodes == 0) return true;
var used = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var queue = new Queue<int>();
queue.Enqueue(0);
while (queue.Count > 0)
{
var v = queue.Dequeue();
if (used[v]) continue;
used[v] = true;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(v)) queue.Enqueue(e.End);
}
return used.All(x => x);
}
}
public bool IsTree
{
get
{
if (numberOfNodes == 0) return true;
var used = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var queue = new Queue<int>();
queue.Enqueue(0);
while (queue.Count > 0)
{
var v = queue.Dequeue();
if (used[v]) return false;
used[v] = true;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(v)) queue.Enqueue(e.End);
}
return used.All(x => x);
}
}
public UndirectedGraph<V, E> MinimumSpanningTreePrim(int start, Func<E, int> cost)
{
var graph = new UndirectedGraph<V, E>(numberOfNodes);
nodes.CopyTo(graph.nodes, 0);
var d = Enumerable.Repeat(Func.Inf, numberOfNodes).ToArray();
var used = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var queue = new PriorityQueue<Pair<EdgeInfo<E>, int>>((x, y) => x.Second.CompareTo(y.Second), numberOfNodes);
d[start] = 0;
queue.Enqueue(new Pair<EdgeInfo<E>, int>(new EdgeInfo<E>(-1, 0, default(E)), 0));
while (queue.Count > 0)
{
var p = queue.Dequeue();
var v = p.First.To;
if (d[v] < p.Second) continue;
used[v] = true;
if (p.First.From >= 0) graph.AddEdge(v, p.First.From, p.First.Information);
foreach (var w in EdgesFrom(v))
{
if (!used[w.End] && cost(w.Information) < d[w.End])
{
d[w.End] = cost(w.Information);
queue.Enqueue(new Pair<EdgeInfo<E>, int>(new EdgeInfo<E>(v, w.End, w.Information), cost(w.Information)));
}
}
}
return graph;
}
public UndirectedGraph<V, E> MinimumSpanningTreeKruskal(Func<E, int> cost)
{
var graph = new UndirectedGraph<V, E>(numberOfNodes);
nodes.CopyTo(graph.nodes, 0);
var tree = new UnionFindTree(numberOfNodes);
edges.Sort((x, y) => cost(x.Information).CompareTo(cost(y.Information)));
foreach (var e in edges)
{
if (!tree.IsSameCategory(e.From, e.To))
{
tree.UniteCategory(e.From, e.To);
}
}
return graph;
}
public bool IsBipartite
{
get
{
var color = new int[numberOfNodes];
foreach (var v in nodes)
{
if (color[v.Code] == 0)
{
var queue = new Queue<Pair<int, int>>();
queue.Enqueue(new Pair<int, int>(v.Code, 1));
while (queue.Count > 0)
{
var w = queue.Dequeue();
if (color[w.First] != 0)
{
if (color[w.First] != w.Second)
return false;
continue;
}
color[w.First] = w.Second;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(w.First)) queue.Enqueue(new Pair<int, int>(e.End, -w.Second));
}
}
}
return true;
}
}
public IEnumerable<NodeInfo<V>> GetArticulationPoints()
{
var visited = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var parent = new int[numberOfNodes];
var children = Enumerable.Range(0, numberOfNodes).Select(_ => new SortedSet<int>()).ToArray();
var order = new int[numberOfNodes];
var lowest = new int[numberOfNodes];
var isroot = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var count = 1;
var isarticulation = new bool[numberOfNodes];
Action<int, int> dfs = null;
dfs = (u, prev) =>
{
order[u] = count;
lowest[u] = count;
count++;
visited[u] = true;
foreach (var e in edgesFrom[u])
{
var v = e.End;
if (visited[v]) { if (v != prev) lowest[u] = Math.Min(lowest[u], order[v]); }
else
{
parent[v] = u;
dfs(v, u);
lowest[u] = Math.Min(lowest[u], lowest[v]);
if (order[u] <= lowest[v]) isarticulation[u] = true;
}
}
};
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++)
{
if (visited[v]) continue;
count = 1; dfs(v, -1);
isroot[v] = true;
}
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++)
{
if (isroot[v]) { if (children[v].Count > 1) yield return nodes[v]; }
else { if (isarticulation[v]) yield return nodes[v]; }
}
}
public string ToString(Func<NodeInfo<V>, string> vertex, Func<EdgeInfo<E>, string> edge)
{
var sb = new StringBuilder();
sb.Append("graph G {\n");
foreach (var v in nodes) sb.Append("\tv" + v.Code + " [label = \"" + vertex(v) + "\"];\n");
foreach (var e in edges) sb.Append("\tv" + e.From + " -- v" + e.To + " [label=\"" + edge(e) + "\"];\n");
sb.Append("}");
return sb.ToString();
}
public override string ToString() { return ToString(v => v.ToString(), e => e.ToString()); }
}
class NodeInfo<V> : Pair<int, V>
{
public int Code { get { return First; } set { First = value; } }
public V Information { get { return Second; } set { Second = value; } }
public NodeInfo() : base() { }
public NodeInfo(int code, V info) : base(code, info) { }
}
class HalfEdgeInfo<E> : Pair<int, E>
{
public int End { get { return First; } set { First = value; } }
public E Information { get { return Second; } set { Second = value; } }
public HalfEdgeInfo() : base() { }
public HalfEdgeInfo(int end, E info) : base(end, info) { }
}
class EdgeInfo<E> : Pair<Pair<int, int>, E>
{
public int From { get { return First.First; } set { First.First = value; } }
public int To { get { return First.Second; } set { First.Second = value; } }
public E Information { get { return Second; } set { Second = value; } }
public EdgeInfo() : base() { }
public EdgeInfo(int from, int to, E info) : base(new Pair<int, int>(from, to), info) { }
public EdgeInfo<E> Reverse() { return new EdgeInfo<E>(To, From, Information); }
}
class DirectedGraph<V, E> : IEnumerable<NodeInfo<V>>
{
protected int numberOfNodes;
public int NumberOfNodes { get { return numberOfNodes; } }
protected NodeInfo<V>[] nodes;
protected List<EdgeInfo<E>> edges;
protected List<HalfEdgeInfo<E>>[] edgesFrom;
protected List<HalfEdgeInfo<E>>[] edgesTo;
public IEnumerable<HalfEdgeInfo<E>> EdgesFrom(int node) { return edgesFrom[node]; }
public int InDegree(int node) { return edgesTo[node].Count; }
public int OutDegree(int node) { return edgesFrom[node].Count; }
public IEnumerable<HalfEdgeInfo<E>> EdgesTo(int node) { return edgesTo[node]; }
public V this[int node] { get { return nodes[node].Second; } set { nodes[node].Second = value; } }
public IEnumerable<EdgeInfo<E>> Edges { get { return edges; } }
public DirectedGraph(int V)
{
numberOfNodes = V;
nodes = Enumerable.Range(0, V).Select(x => new NodeInfo<V>(x, default(V))).ToArray();
edges = new List<EdgeInfo<E>>();
edgesFrom = Enumerable.Range(0, V).Select(_ => new List<HalfEdgeInfo<E>>()).ToArray();
edgesTo = Enumerable.Range(0, V).Select(_ => new List<HalfEdgeInfo<E>>()).ToArray();
}
public DirectedGraph(int V, IEnumerable<EdgeInfo<E>> edges) : this(V) { foreach (var e in edges) AddEdge(e.From, e.To, e.Information); }
{
}
public void AddEdge(int from, int to, E information) { AddEdge(new EdgeInfo<E>(from, to, information)); }
public void AddEdge(V from, V to, E information) { AddEdge(new EdgeInfo<E>(SearchNode(from).Code, SearchNode(to).Code, information)); }
public NodeInfo<V> SearchNode(V node) { return nodes.FirstOrDefault(e => e.Information.Equals(node)); }
public EdgeInfo<E> SearchEdge(E edge) { return edges.Find(e => e.Information.Equals(edge)); }
public IEnumerator<NodeInfo<V>> GetEnumerator() { foreach (var v in nodes) yield return v; }
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return GetEnumerator(); }
public int[] ShortestPathLengthFrom(int from, Func<E, int> cost)
{
var d = Enumerable.Repeat(Func.Inf, numberOfNodes).ToArray();
d[from] = 0;
var update = true;
while (update)
{
update = false;
foreach (var e in edges)
{
var tmp = d[e.From] + cost(e.Information);
if (d[e.From] < Func.Inf && d[e.To] > tmp)
{
d[e.To] = tmp;
update = true;
}
}
}
return d;
}
public int[] DijkstraFrom(int from, Func<E, int> cost)
{
var d = Enumerable.Repeat(Func.Inf, numberOfNodes).ToArray();
var queue = new PriorityQueue<Pair<int, int>>((x, y) => x.Second.CompareTo(y.Second));
d[from] = 0;
queue.Enqueue(new Pair<int, int>(from, 0));
while (!queue.IsEmpty)
{
var p = queue.Dequeue();
var v = p.First;
if (d[v] < p.Second) continue;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(v))
{
var tmp = d[v] + cost(e.Information);
if (d[e.End] > tmp) queue.Enqueue(new Pair<int, int>(e.End, d[e.End] = tmp));
}
}
return d;
}
// cost(e)>=0
public long[] DijkstraFromL(int from, Func<E, long> cost)
{
var d = Enumerable.Repeat(Func.InfL, numberOfNodes).ToArray();
var queue = new PriorityQueue<Pair<int, long>>((x, y) => x.Second.CompareTo(y.Second));
d[from] = 0;
queue.Enqueue(new Pair<int, long>(from, 0));
while (!queue.IsEmpty)
{
var p = queue.Dequeue();
var v = p.First;
if (d[v] < p.Second) continue;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(v))
{
var tmp = d[v] + cost(e.Information);
if (d[e.End] > tmp) queue.Enqueue(new Pair<int, long>(e.End, d[e.End] = tmp));
}
}
return d;
}
public int[,] ShortestPathLengthEachOther(Func<E, int> cost)
{
var d = new int[numberOfNodes, numberOfNodes];
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++) for (var w = 0; w < numberOfNodes; w++) d[v, w] = Func.Inf;
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++) d[v, v] = 0;
foreach (var e in edges) if (e.From != e.To) d[e.From, e.To] = cost(e.Information);
for (var k = 0; k < numberOfNodes; k++)
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++)
for (var w = 0; w < numberOfNodes; w++)
d[v, w] = Math.Min(d[v, w], d[v, k] + d[k, w]);
return d;
}
public bool ContainsNegativeLoopWF(Func<E, int> cost)
{
var d = ShortestPathLengthEachOther(cost);
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++) if (d[v, v] < 0) return true;
return false;
}
public bool ContainsNegativeLoop(Func<E, int> cost)
{
var d = Enumerable.Repeat(0, numberOfNodes).ToArray();
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++)
{
foreach (var e in edges)
{
var tmp = d[e.From] + cost(e.Information);
if (d[e.To] > tmp)
{
d[e.To] = tmp;
if (v == numberOfNodes - 1) return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}
public IEnumerable<int> ReachableFrom(int from)
{
var used = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var queue = new Queue<int>();
queue.Enqueue(from);
while (queue.Count > 0)
{
var v = queue.Dequeue();
if (used[v]) continue;
used[v] = true;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(v)) queue.Enqueue(e.End);
}
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++) if (used[v]) yield return v;
}
public bool IsReachable(int from, int to)
{
var used = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var queue = new Queue<int>();
queue.Enqueue(from);
while (queue.Count > 0)
{
var v = queue.Dequeue();
if (v == to) return true;
if (used[v]) continue;
used[v] = true;
foreach (var e in EdgesFrom(v)) queue.Enqueue(e.End);
}
return false;
}
public Pair<DirectedGraph<HashSet<NodeInfo<V>>, object>, int[]> StronglyConnectedComponents()
{
var mark = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var stack = new Stack<int>();
Action<int> dfs = null;
dfs = v =>
{
mark[v] = true;
foreach (var w in edgesFrom[v]) if (!mark[w.End]) dfs(w.End);
stack.Push(v);
};
for (var v = 0; v < numberOfNodes; v++) if (!mark[v]) dfs(v);
var scc = new List<HashSet<NodeInfo<V>>>();
mark = new bool[numberOfNodes];
var which = new int[numberOfNodes];
Action<int, HashSet<NodeInfo<V>>> rdfs = null;
rdfs = (v, set) =>
{
mark[v] = true;
foreach (var w in edgesFrom[v]) if (!mark[w.End]) rdfs(w.End, set);
};
var M = 0;
while (stack.Count > 0)
{
var v = stack.Pop();
if (mark[v]) continue;
var set = new HashSet<NodeInfo<V>>();
rdfs(v, set);
foreach (var w in set) which[w.Code] = M;
M++;
}
var graph = new UndirectedGraph<HashSet<NodeInfo<V>>, object>(M);
for (var v = 0; v < M; v++) graph[v] = scc[v];
foreach (var e in edges) if (which[e.From] != which[e.To]) graph.AddEdge(which[e.From], which[e.To], null);
return new Pair<DirectedGraph<HashSet<NodeInfo<V>>, object>, int[]>(graph, which);
}
public string ToString(Func<V, string> vertex, Func<E, string> edge)
{
var sb = new StringBuilder();
sb.Append("digraph G {\n");
foreach (var v in nodes) sb.Append("\tv" + v.Code + " [label = \"" + vertex(v.Information) + "\"];\n");
foreach (var e in edges) sb.Append("\tv" + e.From + " -> v" + e.To + " [label=\"" + edge(e.Information) + "\"];\n");
sb.Append("}");
return sb.ToString();
}
public override string ToString() { return ToString(v => v.ToString(), e => e.ToString()); }
}
class UnionFindTree
{
int N;
int[] parent, rank, size;
public UnionFindTree(int capacity)
{
N = capacity;
parent = new int[N];
rank = new int[N];
size = new int[N];
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) { parent[i] = i; size[i] = 1; }
}
public int GetSize(int x) { return size[GetRootOf(x)]; }
public int GetRootOf(int x) { return parent[x] == x ? x : parent[x] = GetRootOf(parent[x]); }
public bool UniteCategory(int x, int y)
{
if ((x = GetRootOf(x)) == (y = GetRootOf(y))) return false;
if (rank[x] < rank[y]) { parent[x] = y; size[y] += size[x]; }
else
{
parent[y] = x; size[x] += size[y];
if (rank[x] == rank[y]) rank[x]++;
}
return true;
}
public bool IsSameCategory(int x, int y) { return GetRootOf(x) == GetRootOf(y); }
}
class AVLTree<T> : IEnumerable<T>, ICollection<T>, ICollection, IEnumerable
{
public class AVLNode : IEnumerable<T>
{
AVLTree<T> tree;
int height;
public int Height { get { return height; } }
public int Bias { get { return Left.height - Right.height; } }
public T Item;
public AVLNode Parent;
public AVLNode Left;
public AVLNode Right;
AVLNode(T x, AVLTree<T> tree) { this.tree = tree; Item = x; Left = tree.sentinel; Right = tree.sentinel; }
public AVLNode(AVLTree<T> tree) : this(default(T), tree) { height = 0; Parent = null; }
public AVLNode(T x, AVLNode parent, AVLTree<T> tree) : this(x, tree) { this.height = 1; this.Parent = parent; }
public void Adjust() { height = 1 + Math.Max(Left.height, Right.height); }
public void ResetAsSentinel() { height = 0; Left = tree.sentinel; Right = tree.sentinel; }
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator()
{
if (this != tree.sentinel)
{
foreach (var x in Left) yield return x;
yield return Item;
foreach (var x in Right) yield return x;
}
}
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return GetEnumerator(); }
}
AVLNode sentinel;
Comparison<T> comp;
Func<T, T, bool> equals;
int count;
// assumed to be comparer
// i.e. comp(x,x)=0, and comp(x,y)>0 then comp(y,x)<0, and comp(x,y)>0 & comp(y,z)>0 then comp(x,z)>0
public AVLTree(Comparison<T> comp)
{
sentinel = new AVLNode(this);
sentinel.ResetAsSentinel();
this.comp = comp == null ? Func.DefaultComparison<T>() : comp;
if (typeof(T).IsValueType) equals = (x, y) => x.Equals(y);
else equals = (x, y) => ReferenceEquals(x, y);
count = 0;
}
public AVLTree(IComparer<T> comp = null) : this(comp.ToComparison()) { }
void Replace(AVLNode u, AVLNode v)
{
var parent = u.Parent;
if (parent.Left == u) parent.Left = v;
else parent.Right = v;
v.Parent = parent;
}
AVLNode RotateL(AVLNode v)
{
var u = v.Right;
Replace(v, u);
v.Right = u.Left;
u.Left.Parent = v;
u.Left = v;
v.Parent = u;
return u;
}
AVLNode RotateR(AVLNode u)
{
var v = u.Left;
Replace(u, v);
u.Left = v.Right;
v.Right.Parent = u;
v.Right = u;
u.Parent = v;
return v;
}
AVLNode RotateLR(AVLNode t) { RotateL(t.Left); return RotateR(t); }
AVLNode RotateRL(AVLNode t) { RotateR(t.Right); return RotateL(t); }
{
while (node.Parent != sentinel)
{
var parent = node.Parent;
var height = parent.Height;
if ((parent.Left == node) == isInsertMode)
if (parent.Bias == 2)
if (parent.Left.Bias >= 0) parent = RotateR(parent);
else parent = RotateLR(parent);
else
if (parent.Bias == -2)
if (parent.Right.Bias <= 0) parent = RotateL(parent);
else parent = RotateRL(parent);
if (height == parent.Height) break;
node = parent;
}
}
{
var parent = sentinel;
var pos = sentinel.Left;
var isLeft = true;
count++;
while (pos != sentinel)
if (comp(item, pos.Item) < 0) { parent = pos; pos = pos.Left; isLeft = true; }
else { parent = pos; pos = pos.Right; isLeft = false; }
if (isLeft)
{
parent.Left = new AVLNode(item, parent, this);
}
else
{
parent.Right = new AVLNode(item, parent, this);
}
}
// if equals(x,y) holds then !(comp(x,y)<0) and !(comp(x,y)>0) must hold
// i.e. equals(x,y) -> comp(x,y)=0
public bool Remove(T item, AVLNode start)
{
var pos = start;
while (pos != sentinel)
{
if (comp(item, pos.Item) < 0) pos = pos.Left;
else if (comp(item, pos.Item) > 0) pos = pos.Right;
else if (equals(pos.Item, item))
{
if (pos.Left == sentinel)
{
Replace(pos, pos.Right);
}
else
{
var max = Max(pos.Left);
pos.Item = max.Item;
Replace(max, max.Left);
}
count--;
return true;
}
else return Remove(item, pos.Left) || Remove(item, pos.Right);
}
return false;
}
public bool Remove(T item) { return Remove(item, sentinel.Left); }
AVLNode Max(AVLNode node)
{
while (node.Right != sentinel) node = node.Right;
return node;
}
AVLNode Min(AVLNode node)
{
while (node.Left != sentinel) node = node.Left;
return node;
}
public bool Contains(T item)
{
var pos = sentinel.Left;
while (pos != sentinel)
{
if (comp(item, pos.Item) < 0) pos = pos.Left;
else if (comp(item, pos.Item) > 0) pos = pos.Right;
else return true;
}
return false;
}
public T Find(T item)
{
var pos = sentinel.Left;
while (pos != sentinel)
{
if (comp(item, pos.Item) < 0) pos = pos.Left;
else if (comp(item, pos.Item) > 0) pos = pos.Right;
else return pos.Item;
}
return default(T);
}
public AVLNode LowerBound(Predicate<T> pred) { AVLNode node; LowerBound(pred, sentinel.Left, out node); return node; }
public AVLNode UpperBound(Predicate<T> pred) { AVLNode node; UpperBound(pred, sentinel.Left, out node); return node; }
public AVLNode LowerBound(T item) { return LowerBound(x => comp(x, item) >= 0); }
public AVLNode UpperBound(T item) { return UpperBound(x => comp(x, item) <= 0); }
bool UpperBound(Predicate<T> pred, AVLNode node, out AVLNode res)
{
if (node == sentinel) { res = null; return false; }
if (pred(node.Item)) { if (!UpperBound(pred, node.Right, out res)) res = node; return true; }
else return UpperBound(pred, node.Left, out res);
}
bool LowerBound(Predicate<T> pred, AVLNode node, out AVLNode res)
{
if (node == sentinel) { res = null; return false; }
if (pred(node.Item)) { if (!LowerBound(pred, node.Left, out res)) res = node; return true; }
else return LowerBound(pred, node.Right, out res);
}
public T Min() { return Min(sentinel.Left).Item; }
public AVLNode MinNode() { return Min(sentinel.Left); }
public T Max() { return Max(sentinel.Left).Item; }
public AVLNode MaxNode() { return Max(sentinel.Left); }
public bool IsEmpty { get { return sentinel.Left == sentinel; } }
public void Clear() { sentinel.Left = sentinel; count = 0; sentinel.ResetAsSentinel(); }
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() { return sentinel.Left.GetEnumerator(); }
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return GetEnumerator(); }
public void CopyTo(T[] array, int arrayIndex) { foreach (var x in this) array[arrayIndex++] = x; }
public int Count { get { return count; } }
public bool IsReadOnly { get { return true; } }
public void CopyTo(Array array, int index) { foreach (var x in this) array.SetValue(x, index++); }
public bool IsSynchronized { get { return false; } }
public object SyncRoot { get { return this; } }
public override string ToString()
{
var nodes = new StringBuilder();
var edges = new StringBuilder();
ConcatSubTree(nodes, edges, sentinel.Left, "L");
return "digraph G {\n" + nodes.ToString() + edges.ToString() + "}";
}
void ConcatSubTree(StringBuilder nodes, StringBuilder edges, AVLNode node, string code)
{
if (node == sentinel) return;
nodes.Append("\tv" + code + " [label = \"" + node.Height + ":" + node.Item + "\"];\n");
if (node.Left != sentinel) edges.Append("\tv" + code + " -> v" + code + "L;\n");
if (node.Right != sentinel) edges.Append("\tv" + code + " -> v" + code + "R;\n");
ConcatSubTree(nodes, edges, node.Left, code + "L");
ConcatSubTree(nodes, edges, node.Right, code + "R");
}
public bool IsBalanced() { return IsBalanced(sentinel.Left); }
public bool IsValidBinarySearchTree() { return IsValidBinarySearchTree(sentinel.Left); }
bool IsBalanced(AVLNode node) { return node == sentinel || (Math.Abs(node.Bias) < 2 && IsBalanced(node.Left) && IsBalanced(node.Right)); }
bool IsValidBinarySearchTree(AVLNode node)
{
return node == sentinel || (Small(node.Item, node.Left) && Large(node.Item, node.Right)
&& IsValidBinarySearchTree(node.Left) && IsValidBinarySearchTree(node.Right));
}
bool Small(T item, AVLNode node) { return node == sentinel || (comp(item, node.Item) >= 0 && Small(item, node.Left) && Small(item, node.Right)); }
bool Large(T item, AVLNode node) { return node == sentinel || (comp(item, node.Item) <= 0 && Large(item, node.Left) && Large(item, node.Right)); }
public static void CheckAVL(Random rand, int N)
{
Comparison<double> comp = (x, y) => x.CompareTo(y);
var avl = new AVLTree<double>(comp);
var toBeLeft = new double[N];
var toBeRemoved = new double[N];
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) avl.Add(toBeRemoved[i] = rand.NextDouble());
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) avl.Add(toBeLeft[i] = rand.NextDouble());
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) Console.Write(avl.Remove(toBeRemoved[i]) ? "" : "!!!NOT REMOVED!!! => " + toBeRemoved[i] + "\n");
var insertErrors = toBeLeft.All(x => avl.Contains(x));
var deleteErrors = avl.Count == N;
//Console.WriteLine("【AVL木の構造】");
//Console.WriteLine(avl);
if (insertErrors && deleteErrors) Console.WriteLine("○\t挿入, 削除操作が正しく行われています.");
else if (insertErrors) Console.WriteLine("×\t挿入(または削除)操作に問題があります.");
else Console.WriteLine("×\t削除(または挿入)操作に問題があります.");
if (avl.IsBalanced()) Console.WriteLine("○\tAVL木は平衡条件を保っています.");
else Console.WriteLine("×\tAVL木の平衡条件が破れています.");
if (avl.IsValidBinarySearchTree()) Console.WriteLine("○\tAVL木は二分探索木になっています.");
else Console.WriteLine("×\tAVL木は二分探索木になっていません.");
Array.Sort(toBeLeft, comp);
Console.WriteLine("最小値 : " + avl.Min() + " ≡ " + toBeLeft.First());
Console.WriteLine("最大値 : " + avl.Max() + " ≡ " + toBeLeft.Last());
Console.WriteLine("要素数 : " + avl.Count + "個");
}
}
class PriorityQueue<T> : IEnumerable<T>, ICollection, IEnumerable, ICloneable
{
Comparison<T> comp;
List<T> list;
public int Count { get; private set; }
public bool IsEmpty { get { return Count == 0; } }
public PriorityQueue(IEnumerable<T> source) : this((Comparison<T>)null, 0, source) { }
public PriorityQueue(int capacity = 0, IEnumerable<T> source = null) : this((Comparison<T>)null, capacity, source) { }
public PriorityQueue(IComparer<T> comp, IEnumerable<T> source) : this(comp.ToComparison(), source) { }
public PriorityQueue(IComparer<T> comp, int capacity = 0, IEnumerable<T> source = null) : this(comp.ToComparison(), source) { list.Capacity = capacity; }
public PriorityQueue(Comparison<T> comp, IEnumerable<T> source) : this(comp, 0, source) { }
public PriorityQueue(Comparison<T> comp, int capacity = 0, IEnumerable<T> source = null) { this.comp = comp == null ? Func.DefaultComparison<T>() : comp; list = new List<T>(capacity); if (source != null) foreach (var x in source) Enqueue(x); }
/// <summary>
/// this is an O(log n) operation
/// </summary>
/// <param name="x">item</param>
public void Enqueue(T x)
{
var pos = Count++;
while (pos > 0)
{
var p = (pos - 1) / 2;
if (comp(list[p], x) <= 0) break;
list[pos] = list[p];
pos = p;
}
list[pos] = x;
}
/// <summary>
/// return the minimum element and remove it
/// this is an O(log n) operation
/// </summary>
/// <returns>the minimum</returns>
public T Dequeue()
{
var value = list[0];
var x = list[--Count];
list.RemoveAt(Count);
if (Count == 0) return value;
var pos = 0;
while (pos * 2 + 1 < Count)
{
var a = 2 * pos + 1;
var b = 2 * pos + 2;
if (b < Count && comp(list[b], list[a]) < 0) a = b;
if (comp(list[a], x) >= 0) break;
list[pos] = list[a];
pos = a;
}
list[pos] = x;
return value;
}
/// <summary>
/// look at the minimum element
/// this is an O(1) operation
/// </summary>
/// <returns>the minimum</returns>
public T Peek() { return list[0]; }
public IEnumerator<T> GetEnumerator() { var x = (PriorityQueue<T>)Clone(); while (x.Count > 0) yield return x.Dequeue(); }
void CopyTo(Array array, int index) { foreach (var x in this) array.SetValue(x, index++); }
public object Clone() { var x = new PriorityQueue<T>(comp, Count); x.list.AddRange(list); return x; }
public void Clear() { list = new List<T>(); Count = 0; }
public void TrimExcess() { list.TrimExcess(); }
/// <summary>
/// check whether item is in this queue
/// this is an O(n) operation
/// </summary>
public bool Contains(T item) { return list.Contains(item); }
IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator() { return GetEnumerator(); }
void ICollection.CopyTo(Array array, int index) { CopyTo(array, index); }
bool ICollection.IsSynchronized { get { return false; } }
object ICollection.SyncRoot { get { return this; } }
}
class Deque<T>
{
T[] array;
int offset, capacity;
public int Count { get; protected set; }
public Deque(int capacity) { array = new T[this.capacity = capacity]; Count = 0; offset = 0; }
public Deque() : this(16) { }
public T this[int index] { get { return array[GetIndex(index)]; } set { array[GetIndex(index)] = value; } }
int GetIndex(int index) { var tmp = index + offset; return tmp >= capacity ? tmp - capacity : tmp; }
public T PeekFront() { return array[offset]; }
public T PeekBack() { return array[GetIndex(Count - 1)]; }
public void PushFront(T item)
{
if (Count == capacity) Extend();
if (--offset < 0) offset += array.Length;
array[offset] = item;
Count++;
}
public T PopFront()
{
Count--;
var tmp = array[offset++];
if (offset >= capacity) offset -= capacity;
return tmp;
}
public void PushBack(T item)
{
if (Count == capacity) Extend();
var id = (Count++) + offset;
if (id >= capacity) id -= capacity;
array[id] = item;
}
public T PopBack() { return array[GetIndex(--Count)]; }
public void Insert(int index, T item)
{
PushFront(item);
for (var i = 0; i < index; i++) this[i] = this[i + 1];
this[index] = item;
}
public T RemoveAt(int index)
{
var tmp = this[index];
for (var i = index; i > 0; i--) this[i] = this[i - 1];
PopFront();
return tmp;
}
void Extend()
{
var newArray = new T[capacity << 1];
if (offset > capacity - Count)
{
var length = array.Length - offset;
Array.Copy(array, offset, newArray, 0, length);
Array.Copy(array, 0, newArray, length, Count - length);
}
else Array.Copy(array, offset, newArray, 0, Count);
array = newArray;
offset = 0;
capacity <<= 1;
}
}
class PairComparer<S, T> : IComparer<Pair<S, T>>
where S : IComparable<S>
where T : IComparable<T>
{
public PairComparer() { }
public int Compare(Pair<S, T> x, Pair<S, T> y)
{
var p = x.First.CompareTo(y.First);
if (p != 0) return p;
else return x.Second.CompareTo(y.Second);
}
}
class Pair<S, T>
{
public S First;
public T Second;
public Pair() { First = default(S); Second = default(T); }
public Pair(S s, T t) { First = s; Second = t; }
public override string ToString() { return "(" + First + ", " + Second + ")"; }
public override int GetHashCode() { return First.GetHashCode() ^ Second.GetHashCode(); }
public override bool Equals(object obj)
{
if (ReferenceEquals(this, obj)) return true;
else if (obj == null) return false;
var tmp = obj as Pair<S, T>;
return (object)tmp != null && First.Equals(tmp.First) && Second.Equals(tmp.Second);
}
}
class Point : Pair<int, int>
{
public int X { get { return First; } set { First = value; } }
public int Y { get { return Second; } set { Second = value; } }
public Point() : base(0, 0) { }
public Point(int x, int y) : base(x, y) { }
public IEnumerable<Point> Neighbors4()
{
yield return new Point(X - 1, Y);
yield return new Point(X, Y - 1);
yield return new Point(X, Y + 1);
yield return new Point(X + 1, Y);
}
public IEnumerable<Point> Neighbors8()
{
yield return new Point(X - 1, Y - 1);
yield return new Point(X - 1, Y);
yield return new Point(X - 1, Y + 1);
yield return new Point(X, Y - 1);
yield return new Point(X, Y + 1);
yield return new Point(X + 1, Y - 1);
yield return new Point(X + 1, Y);
yield return new Point(X + 1, Y + 1);
}
public static Point operator +(Point p) { return new Point(p.X, p.Y); }
public static Point operator -(Point p) { return new Point(-p.X, -p.Y); }
public static Point operator /(Point p, int r) { return new Point(p.X / r, p.Y / r); }
public static Point operator *(int r, Point p) { return new Point(p.X * r, p.Y * r); }
public static Point operator *(Point p, int r) { return new Point(p.X * r, p.Y * r); }
public static Point operator +(Point p, Point q) { return new Point(p.X + q.X, p.Y + q.Y); }
public static Point operator -(Point p, Point q) { return new Point(p.X - q.X, p.Y - q.Y); }
}
class Printer : IDisposable
{
bool isConsole;
TextWriter file;
public Printer() { file = new StreamWriter(Console.OpenStandardOutput()) { AutoFlush = false }; isConsole = true; }
public Printer(string path) { file = new StreamWriter(path, false) { AutoFlush = false }; isConsole = false; }
public void Write<T>(T value) { file.Write(value); }
public void Write(bool b) { file.Write(b ? "YES" : "NO"); }
public void Write(string str, params object[] args) { file.Write(str, args); }
public void WriteLine() { file.WriteLine(); }
public void WriteLine<T>(T value) { file.WriteLine(value); }
public void WriteLine(bool b) { file.WriteLine(b ? "YES" : "NO"); }
public void WriteLine<T>(IEnumerable<T> list) { foreach (var x in list) file.WriteLine(x); }
public void WriteLine<T>(List<T> list) { foreach (var x in list) file.WriteLine(x); }
public void WriteLine<T>(T[] list) { foreach (var x in list) file.WriteLine(x); }
public void WriteLine(string str, params object[] args) { file.WriteLine(str, args); }
public void Dispose() { file.Flush(); if (!isConsole) file.Dispose(); }
}
class Scanner : IDisposable
{
bool isConsole;
public Scanner() { file = Console.In; }
public Scanner(string path) { file = new StreamReader(path); isConsole = false; }
public void Dispose() { if (!isConsole) file.Dispose(); }
public T Get<T>() { return (T)Convert(file.ReadLine(), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(T))); }
public int Int { get { return Get<int>(); } }
public uint UInt { get { return Get<uint>(); } }
public long Long { get { return Get<long>(); } }
public ulong ULong { get { return Get<ulong>(); } }
public double Double { get { return Get<double>(); } }
public decimal Decimal { get { return Get<decimal>(); } }
public char Char { get { return Get<char>(); } }
public string String { get { return Get<string>(); } }
public Tuple<S, T> Get<S, T>() { S s; T t; Read(out s, out t); return new Tuple<S, T>(s, t); }
public Tuple<S, T, U> Get<S, T, U>() { S s; T t; U u; Read(out s, out t, out u); return new Tuple<S, T, U>(s, t, u); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V> Get<S, T, U, V>() { S s; T t; U u; V v; Read(out s, out t, out u, out v); return new Tuple<S, T, U, V>(s, t, u, v); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W> Get<S, T, U, V, W>() { S s; T t; U u; V v; W w; Read(out s, out t, out u, out v, out w); return new Tuple<S, T, U, V, W>(s, t, u, v, w); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X> Get<S, T, U, V, W, X>() { S s; T t; U u; V v; W w; X x; Read(out s, out t, out u, out v, out w, out x); return new Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X>(s, t, u, v, w, x); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y> Get<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y>() { S s; T t; U u; V v; W w; X x; Y y; Read(out s, out t, out u, out v, out w, out x, out y); return new Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y>(s, t, u, v, w, x, y); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z> Get<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z>() { S s; T t; U u; V v; W w; X x; Y y; Z z; Read(out s, out t, out u, out v, out w, out x, out y, out z); return new Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z>(s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z); }
public Pair<S, T> Pair<S, T>() { S s; T t; Read(out s, out t); return new Pair<S, T>(s, t); }
object Convert(string str, TypeCode type)
{
if (type == TypeCode.Int32) return int.Parse(str);
else if (type == TypeCode.UInt32) return uint.Parse(str);
else if (type == TypeCode.Int64) return long.Parse(str);
else if (type == TypeCode.UInt64) return ulong.Parse(str);
else if (type == TypeCode.Double) return double.Parse(str);
else if (type == TypeCode.Decimal) return decimal.Parse(str);
else if (type == TypeCode.Char) return str[0];
else if (type == TypeCode.String) return str;
else if (type == Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(Point))) { int s, t; Read(out s, out t); return new Point(s, t); }
else throw new Exception();
}
public T[] ReadMany<T>() { var type = Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(T)); return file.ReadLine().Split(sep, StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries).Select(str => (T)Convert(str, type)).ToArray(); }
public T[] ReadMany<T>(int n) { var type = Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(T)); return file.ReadLine().Split(sep, StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries).Take(n).Select(str => (T)Convert(str, type)).ToArray(); }
public T[] ReadManyLines<T>(int n, Func<T> selector) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => selector()).ToArray(); }
public T[] ReadManyLines<T>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<T>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T>[] ReadManyLines<S, T>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T, U>[] ReadManyLines<S, T, U>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T, U>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V>[] ReadManyLines<S, T, U, V>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T, U, V>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W>[] ReadManyLines<S, T, U, V, W>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T, U, V, W>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X>[] ReadManyLines<S, T, U, V, W, X>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T, U, V, W, X>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y>[] ReadManyLines<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y>()).ToArray(); }
public Tuple<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z>[] ReadManyLines<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z>(int n) { return Enumerable.Range(0, n).Select(_ => Get<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z>()).ToArray(); }
public T[,] ReadManyManyLines<T>(int X, int Y)
{
var array = new T[X, Y];
for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++) { var tmp = ReadMany<T>(X); for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) array[x, y] = tmp[x]; }
return array;
}
{
}
public void Read<S, T>(out S s, out T t)
{
}
public void Read<S, T, U>(out S s, out T t, out U u)
{
}
public void Read<S, T, U, V>(out S s, out T t, out U u, out V v)
{
}
public void Read<S, T, U, V, W>(out S s, out T t, out U u, out V v, out W w)
{
Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(U)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(V)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(W))).ToArray();
}
public void Read<S, T, U, V, W, X>(out S s, out T t, out U u, out V v, out W w, out X x)
{
Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(U)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(V)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(W)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(X))).ToArray();
}
public void Read<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y>(out S s, out T t, out U u, out V v, out W w, out X x, out Y y)
{
Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(U)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(V)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(W)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(X)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(Y))).ToArray();
}
public void Read<S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z>(out S s, out T t, out U u, out V v, out W w, out X x, out Y y, out Z z)
{
Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(U)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(V)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(W)),
Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(X)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(Y)), Type.GetTypeCode(typeof(Z))).ToArray();
}
static char[] sep = new char[] { ' ', '/' };
{
for (var i = 0; i < types.Length; i++) yield return Convert(input[i], types[i]);
}
public T[,] Board<T>(int X, int Y, Func<char, int, int, T> selector)
{
var array = new T[X, Y];
for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++)
{
var str = Get<string>();
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) array[x, y] = selector(str[x], x, y);
}
return array;
}
}
static class Func
{
public const int Inf = 1073741789;  // 2 * Inf < int.MaxValue, and Inf is a prime number
public const long InfL = 4011686018427387913L;  // 2 * InfL < long.MaxValue, and InfL is a prime number
public static Comparison<T> DefaultComparison<T>() { return (x, y) => Comparer<T>.Default.Compare(x, y); }
public static Comparison<T> ToComparison<T>(this IComparer<T> comp) { return comp == null ? DefaultComparison<T>() : (x, y) => comp.Compare(x, y); }
/// <summary>
/// Find the first number x such that pred(x) is true
/// if pred(x) is false for all min&lt;=x&lt;max, then return max
/// in other words, pred(max) is assumed to be true
/// </summary>
/// <param name="min">inclusive lower limit</param>
/// <param name="max">exclusive upper limit</param>
/// <param name="pred">monotonous predicate, i.e. if pred(a) and a&lt;b, then pred(b)</param>
/// <returns>first number such that satisfy pred</returns>
public static long FirstBinary(long min, long max, Predicate<long> pred)
{
while (min < max)
{
var mid = (min + max) / 2;
if (pred(mid)) max = mid;
else min = mid + 1;
}
return min;
}
/// <summary>
/// Find the first number x such that pred(x) is true
/// if pred(x) is false for all min&lt;=x&lt;max, then return max
/// in other words, pred(max) is assumed to be true
/// </summary>
/// <param name="min">inclusive lower limit</param>
/// <param name="max">exclusive upper limit</param>
/// <param name="pred">monotonous predicate, i.e. if pred(a) and a&lt;b, then pred(b)</param>
/// <returns>first number such that satisfy pred</returns>
public static int FirstBinary(int min, int max, Predicate<int> pred)
{
while (min < max)
{
var mid = (min + max) / 2;
if (pred(mid)) max = mid;
else min = mid + 1;
}
return min;
}
public static Dictionary<T, S> Reverse<S, T>(this IDictionary<S, T> dict)
{
var r = new Dictionary<T, S>();
foreach (var t in dict) r.Add(t.Value, t.Key);
return r;
}
public static void Swap<T>(this IList<T> array, int i, int j) { var tmp = array[i]; array[i] = array[j]; array[j] = tmp; }
public static void Swap<T>(ref T a, ref T b) { var tmp = a; a = b; b = tmp; }
public static T IndexAt<T>(this T[,] array, Pair<int, int> index) { return array[index.First, index.Second]; }
public static bool InRegion(this Pair<int, int> p, int X, int Y) { return p.InRegion(0, X, 0, Y); }
public static bool InRegion(this Pair<int, int> p, int x, int X, int y, int Y) { return p.First >= x && p.Second >= y && p.First < X && p.Second < Y; }
/// <summary>
/// get all permutation of 0, 1, ..., n - 1
/// </summary>
/// <param name="n">length of array</param>
/// <param name="func">if you want to change the elements of the array, you must take a copy</param>
public static void Permutation(int n, Action<int[]> func)
{
var array = new int[n];
var unused = new bool[n];
for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) unused[i] = true;
Permutation(n, 0, array, unused, func);
}
static void Permutation(int n, int i, int[] array, bool[] unused, Action<int[]> func)
{
if (i == n) func(array);
else
for (var x = 0; x < n; x++)
if (unused[x])
{
array[i] = x;
unused[x] = false;
Permutation(n, i + 1, array, unused, func);
unused[x] = true;
}
}
public static long Fact(int n)
{
var fact = 1L;
for (var i = 2; i <= n; i++) fact *= i;
return fact;
}
public static Dictionary<long, int> Factorize(this long n, List<int> primes)
{
var d = new Dictionary<long, int>();
for (var j = 0; j < primes.Count; j++)
{
var i = primes[j];
if (i * i > n) break;
if (n % i == 0)
{
while (n % i == 0) { n /= i; d[i]++; }
}
}
if (n > 1) d.Add(n, 1);
return d;
}
public static Dictionary<long, int> Factorize(this long n)
{
var d = new Dictionary<long, int>();
for (var i = 2L; i * i <= n; i++)
if (n % i == 0)
{
while (n % i == 0) { n /= i; d[i]++; }
}
if (n > 1) d.Add(n, 1);
return d;
}
public static long LCM(long n, long m) { return Math.Abs((n / GCD(n, m)) * m); }
public static long Divide(long n, long m) { return (n - Remainder(n, m)) / m; }
public static long Remainder(long n, long m)
{
if (m == 0) throw new DivideByZeroException();
else if (m < 0) return Remainder(n, -m);
else
{
var r = n % m;
return r < 0 ? r + m : r;
}
}
public static long Recurrence(long[] coeff, long[] init, long N, long mod)
{
var K = init.Length;
if (N < 0)
{
var inv = Inverse(coeff[0], mod);
var rc = new long[K];
for (var i = 1; i < K; i++) rc[K - i] = -coeff[i] * inv % mod;
rc[0] = inv;
var ri = new long[K];
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++) ri[K - 1 - i] = init[i];
return Recurrence(rc, ri, K - 1 - N, mod);
}
var tmp = new long[K];
Recurrence(coeff, init, tmp, N, mod);
var sum = 0L;
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++) sum += init[i] * tmp[i] % mod;
sum %= mod;
if (sum < 0) sum += mod;
return sum;
}
public static void Recurrence(long[] coeff, long[] init, long[] state, long N, long mod)
{
var K = init.Length;
if (N < K) state[N] = init[N];
else if ((N & 1) == 0)
{
var tmp = new long[K][];
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++) tmp[i] = new long[K];
Recurrence(coeff, init, tmp[0], N / 2, mod);
for (var i = 1; i < K; i++) tmp[i] = Next(coeff, tmp[i - 1], mod);
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++)
{
state[i] = 0;
for (var j = 0; j < K; j++) state[i] += tmp[0][j] * tmp[j][i] % mod;
state[i] %= mod;
}
}
else if (N < 2 * K || (N & 2) == 0)
{
var tmp = new long[K];
Recurrence(coeff, init, tmp, N - 1, mod);
tmp = Next(coeff, tmp, mod);
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++) state[i] = tmp[i];
}
else
{
var tmp = new long[K];
Recurrence(coeff, init, tmp, N + 1, mod);
tmp = Prev(coeff, tmp, mod);
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++) state[i] = tmp[i];
}
}
static long[] Next(long[] coeff, long[] state, long mod)
{
var K = coeff.Length;
var tmp = new long[K];
for (var i = 0; i < K; i++) tmp[i] = coeff[i] * state[K - 1] % mod;
for (var i = 1; i < K; i++) tmp[i] = (tmp[i] + state[i - 1]) % mod;
return tmp;
}
static long[] Prev(long[] coeff, long[] state, long mod)
{
var K = coeff.Length;
var tmp = new long[K];
var inv = Inverse(coeff[0], mod);
tmp[K - 1] = state[0] * inv % mod;
for (var i = 1; i < K; i++) tmp[i - 1] = (state[i] - coeff[i] * tmp[K - 1] % mod) % mod;
return tmp;
}
// get all primes less than or equal to n
public static List<int> GetPrimes(int n)
{
if (n < 3) n = 3;
var m = (n - 1) >> 1;
var primes = new List<int>((int)(n / Math.Log(n)));
var composites = new bool[m];
composites[0] = false;
for (var p = 0; p < m; p++)
{
if (!composites[p])
{
var pnum = 2 * p + 3;
for (var k = 3 * p + 3; k < m; k += pnum) composites[k] = true;
}
}
return primes;
}
/// <summary>
/// solve nx+my=1 and returns (x,y)
/// </summary>
/// <param name="n">assumed to be with m</param>
/// <param name="m">assumed to be with n</param>
/// <returns>(x,y) where nx+my=1</returns>
public static Tuple<long, long> SolveLinear(long n, long m)
{
if (n < 0) { var p = SolveLinear(-n, m); return p == null ? p : new Tuple<long, long>(-p.Item1, p.Item2); }
if (m < 0) { var p = SolveLinear(n, -m); return p == null ? p : new Tuple<long, long>(p.Item1, -p.Item2); }
if (n < m) { var p = SolveLinear(m, n); return p == null ? p : new Tuple<long, long>(p.Item2, p.Item1); }
long a = 1, b = 0, c = 0, d = 1;
while (m > 0)
{
var r = n % m;
var q = n / m;
n = m;
m = r;
var tmp = a;
a = -a * q + b;
b = tmp;
tmp = c;
c = -c * q + d;
d = tmp;
}
return n != 1 ? null : new Tuple<long, long>(d, b);
}
public static int GCD(int n, int m)
{
var a = Math.Abs(n);
var b = Math.Abs(m);
if (a < b) { var c = a; a = b; b = c; }
while (b > 0)
{
var c = a % b;
a = b;
b = c;
}
return a;
}
/*public static long GCD(long n, long m)
{
var a = Math.Abs(n);
var b = Math.Abs(m);
if (a < b) { var c = a; a = b; b = c; }
while (b > 0)
{
var c = a % b;
a = b;
b = c;
}
return a;
}*/
public static long GCD(long a, long b)
{
var n = (ulong)Math.Abs(a); var m = (ulong)Math.Abs(b);
if (n == 0) return (long)m; if (m == 0) return (long)n;
int zm = 0, zn = 0;
while ((n & 1) == 0) { n >>= 1; zn++; }
while ((m & 1) == 0) { m >>= 1; zm++; }
while (m != n)
{
if (m > n) { m -= n; while ((m & 1) == 0) m >>= 1; }
else { n -= m; while ((n & 1) == 0) n >>= 1; }
}
return (long)n << Math.Min(zm, zn);
}
public static BigInteger GCD(BigInteger a, BigInteger b) { return BigInteger.GreatestCommonDivisor(a, b); }
public static long Inverse(long a, long mod)
{
if (a < 0) { a %= mod; if (a < 0) a += mod; }
var t = SolveLinear(a, mod);
return t.Item1 > 0 ? t.Item1 : t.Item1 + mod;
}
public static ulong Pow(ulong a, ulong b, ulong mod)
{
var p = 1uL;
var x = a;
while (b > 0)
{
if ((b & 1) == 1) p = (p * x) % mod;
b >>= 1;
x = (x * x) % mod;
}
return p;
}
public static long Pow(long a, long b, long mod)
{
var p = 1L;
var x = a;
while (b > 0)
{
if ((b & 1) == 1) p = (p * x) % mod;
b >>= 1;
x = (x * x) % mod;
}
return p;
}
public static long Pow(long a, long b)
{
if (a == 1) return 1;
else if (a == 0) { if (b >= 0) return 0; else throw new DivideByZeroException(); }
else if (b < 0) return 0;
var p = 1l;
var x = a;
while (b > 0)
{
if ((b & 1) == 1) p *= x;
b >>= 1;
x *= x;
}
return p;
}
public static ulong Pow(ulong a, ulong b)
{
var p = 1ul;
var x = a;
while (b > 0)
{
if ((b & 1) == 1) p *= x;
b >>= 1;
x *= x;
}
return p;
}
public static long ChineseRemainder(Tuple<long, long> modRemainder1, Tuple<long, long> modRemainder2)
{
var m1 = modRemainder1.Item1;
var m2 = modRemainder2.Item1;
var a1 = modRemainder1.Item2;
var a2 = modRemainder2.Item2;
var t = SolveLinear(m1, m2);
var n1 = t.Item1;
var n2 = t.Item2;
return (m1 * n1 * a2 + m2 * n2 * a1) % (m1 * m2);
}
public static long ChineseRemainder(params Tuple<long, long>[] modRemainder)
{
if (modRemainder.Length == 0) throw new DivideByZeroException();
else if (modRemainder.Length == 1) return modRemainder[0].Item2;
else if (modRemainder.Length == 2) return ChineseRemainder(modRemainder[0], modRemainder[1]);
else
{
var tuple = new Tuple<long, long>(1, 0);
for (var i = 0; i < modRemainder.Length; i++)
{
var tmp = ChineseRemainder(tuple, modRemainder[i]);
tuple = new Tuple<long, long>(tuple.Item1 * modRemainder[i].Item1, tmp);
}
return tuple.Item2;
}
}
// forward transform -> theta= 2*PI/n
// reverse transform -> theta=-2*PI/n, and use a[i]/n instead of a
// O(n*log(n))
public static void FastFourierTransform(int n, double theta, Complex[] a)
{
for (var m = n; m >= 2; m >>= 1)
{
var mh = m >> 1;
for (var i = 0; i < mh; i++)
{
var w = Complex.Exp(i * theta * Complex.ImaginaryOne);
for (var j = i; j < n; j += m)
{
var k = j + mh;
var x = a[j] - a[k];
a[j] += a[k];
a[k] = w * x;
}
}
theta *= 2;
}
var s = 0;
for (var j = 1; j < n - 1; j++)
{
for (var k = n >> 1; k > (s ^= k); k >>= 1) ;
if (j < s) a.Swap(s, j);
}
}
// get table of Euler function
// let return value f, f[i]=phi(i) for 0<=i<=n
// nearly O(n)
public static long[] EulerFunctionTable(long n)
{
if (n < 2) n = 2;
var f = new long[n + 1];
for (var i = 0L; i <= n; i++) f[i] = i;
for (var i = 2L; i <= n; i++) if (f[i] == i) for (var j = i; j <= n; j += i) f[j] = f[j] / i * (i - 1);
return f;
}
// O(sqrt(n))
public static long EulerFunction(long n)
{
var res = n;
for (var i = 2L; i * i <= n; i++)
if (n % i == 0)
{
res = res / i * (i - 1);
do n /= i; while (n % i == 0);
}
if (n != 1) res = res / n * (n - 1);
return res;
}
// get moebius function of d s.t. 0<=d<=n
// O(n)
public static int[] MoebiusFunctionTable(long n)
{
if (n < 2) n = 2;
var f = new int[n + 1];
var p = new bool[n + 1];
for (var i = 0L; i <= n; i++) f[i] = 1;
for (var i = 2L; i <= n; i++) if (!p[i])
{
for (var j = i; j <= n; j += i) { f[j] *= -1; p[j] = true; }
for (var j = i * i; j <= n; j += i * i) f[j] = 0;
}
return f;
}
// get moebius function of d s.t. d|n
// if dict.ContainsKey(d), dict[d]!=0, otherwise moebius function of d is 0
// O(sqrt(n))
public static Dictionary<long, int> MoebiusFunctionOfDivisors(long n)
{
var ps = new List<long>();
for (var i = 2L; i * i <= n; i++)
if (n % i == 0)
{
do n /= i; while (n % i == 0);
}
var dict = new Dictionary<long, int>();
var m = ps.Count;
for (var i = 0; i < (1 << m); i++)
{
var mu = 1;
var k = 1L;
for (var j = 0; j < m; j++) if ((i & (1 << j)) != 0) { mu *= -1; k *= ps[j]; }
}
return dict;
}
// O(sqrt(n))
public static int MoebiusFunction(long n)
{
var mu = 1;
for (var i = 2L; i * i <= n; i++)
if (n % i == 0)
{
mu *= -1;
if ((n /= i) % i == 0) return 0;
}
return n == 1 ? mu : -mu;
}
// O(sqrt(n))
public static long CarmichaelFunction(long n)
{
var lambda = 1L;
var c = 0;
while (n % 2 == 0) { n /= 2; c++; }
if (c == 2) lambda = 2; else if (c > 2) lambda = 1 << (c - 2);
for (var i = 3L; i * i <= n; i++)
if (n % i == 0)
{
var tmp = i - 1;
n /= i;
while (n % i == 0) { n /= i; tmp *= i; }
lambda = LCM(lambda, tmp);
}
if (n != 1) lambda = LCM(lambda, n - 1);
return lambda;
}
// a+bi is Gaussian prime or not
public static bool IsGaussianPrime(ulong a, ulong b)
{
if (a == 0) return b % 4 == 3 && IsPrime(b);
else if (b == 0) return a % 4 == 3 && IsPrime(a);
else return IsPrime(a * a + b * b);
}
// nearly O(200)
public static bool IsPrime(ulong n)
{
if (n <= 1 || (n > 2 && n % 2 == 0)) return false;
var test = new uint[] { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 111 };
var d = n - 1;
int s = 0;
while (d % 2 == 0) { ++s; d /= 2; }
Predicate<ulong> f = t =>
{
var x = Pow(t, d, n);
if (x == 1) return true;
for (var r = 0L; r < s; r++)
{
if (x == n - 1) return true;
x = (x * x) % n;
}
return false;
};
for (var i = 0; test[i] < n && test[i] != 111; i++) if (!f(test[i])) return false;
return true;
}
public static decimal MeasureTime(Action action)
{
var sw = new System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch();
sw.Restart();
action();
sw.Stop();
return sw.ElapsedTicks * 1000m / System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch.Frequency;
}
static readonly double GoldenRatio = 2 / (3 + Math.Sqrt(5));
// assume f is 凹
// find c s.t. a<=c<=b and for all a<=x<=b, f(c)<=f(x)
public static double GoldenSectionSearch(double a, double b, Func<double, double> f)
{
double c = a + GoldenRatio * (b - a), d = b - GoldenRatio * (b - a);
double fc = f(c), fd = f(d);
while (d - c > 1e-9)
{
if (fc > fd)
{
a = c; c = d; d = b - GoldenRatio * (b - a);
fc = fd; fd = f(d);
}
else
{
b = d; d = c; c = a + GoldenRatio * (b - a);
fd = fc; fc = f(c);
}
}
return c;
}
// O(NW)
public static int KnapsackW(int[] w, int[] v, int W)
{
var N = w.Length;
var dp = new int[W + 1];
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) for (var j = W; j >= w[i]; j--)
dp[j] = Math.Max(dp[j], v[i] + dp[j - w[i]]);
return dp[W];
}
// O(NV)
public static int KnapsackV(int[] w, int[] v, int W)
{
var N = w.Length;
var V = v.Sum();
var dp = new int[V + 1];
for (var i = 1; i <= V; i++) dp[i] = Inf;
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) for (var j = V; j >= v[i]; j--)
dp[j] = Math.Min(dp[j], w[i] + dp[j - v[i]]);
for (var j = V; j >= 0; j--) if (dp[j] <= W) return j;
return 0;
}
// O(N*2^(N/2))
public static long KnapsackN(long[] w, long[] v, int W)
{
var N = w.Length;
var half = N / 2;
var items = new Tuple<long, long>[N];
for (var i = 0; i < N; i++) items[i] = new Tuple<long, long>(w[i], v[i]);
Array.Sort(items, (x, y) => x.Item1.CompareTo(y.Item1));
Func<int, int, List<Pair<long, long>>> gen = (start, end) =>
{
if (start >= end) return new List<Pair<long, long>>();
var lim = 1 << (end - start);
var list = new List<Pair<long, long>>();
for (var i = 0; i < lim; i++)
{
var weight = 0L;
var value = 0L;
var tmp = i;
for (var j = start; j < end; j++)
{
if ((tmp & 1) == 1) { weight += items[j].Item1; value += items[j].Item2; }
tmp >>= 1;
}
if (weight <= W) list.Add(new Pair<long, long>(weight, value));
}
list.Sort((x, y) => { var c = x.First.CompareTo(y.First); return c == 0 ? x.Second.CompareTo(y.Second) : c; });
var n = list.Count;
if (n == 0) return list;
for (var i = list.Count - 2; i >= 0; i--) if (list[i].First == list[i + 1].First) list[i].Second = Math.Max(list[i].Second, list[i + 1].Second);
var small = new List<Pair<long, long>>();
var last = -1;
while (last + 1 < n)
{
var tmp = list[last + 1].First;
last = Func.FirstBinary(last + 1, n, x => list[x].First > tmp) - 1;
if (small.Count == 0 || list[last].Second > small[small.Count - 1].Second) small.Add(list[last]);
}
return small;
};
var first = gen(0, half);
var second = gen(half, N);
var max = 0L;
var last2 = second.Count;
foreach (var item in first)
{
last2 = Func.FirstBinary(0, last2, x => second[x].First > W - item.First) - 1;
if (last2 < 0) break;
if (second[last2].First <= W - item.First) Func.SetToMax(ref max, item.Second + second[last2].Second);
last2++;
}
return max;
}
// nums[i] が counts[i] 個
// K is partial sum?
// O(NK)
public static bool PartialSum(int[] nums, int[] counts, int K)
{
var N = nums.Length;
var memo = new int[K + 1];
for (var s = 1; s <= K; s++) memo[s] = -1;
for (var n = 0; n < N; n++) for (var s = 0; s <= K; s++) memo[s] = memo[s] >= 0 ? counts[n] : s < nums[n] ? -1 : memo[s - nums[n]] - 1;
return memo[K] >= 0;
}
// O(N log(N))
public static int LongestIncreasingSubsequence(int[] a)
{
var N = a.Length;
var memo = new int[N];
for (var n = 0; n < N; n++) memo[n] = Inf;
for (var n = 0; n < N; n++)
{
var k = Func.FirstBinary(0, N, x => a[n] <= memo[x]);
memo[k] = a[n];
}
return Func.FirstBinary(0, N, x => memo[x] == Inf);
}
// O(nm)
public static int LongestCommonSubsequence(string s, string t)
{
var n = s.Length;
var m = t.Length;
var memo = new int[n + 1, m + 1];
for (int i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
for (int j = m - 1; j >= 0; j--)
if (s[i] == t[j]) memo[i, j] = memo[i + 1, j + 1] + 1;
else memo[i, j] = Math.Max(memo[i + 1, j], memo[i, j + 1]);
return memo[0, 0];
}
// the number of ways of dividing N to M numbers
// O(NM)
public static int Partition(int N, int M, int Mod)
{
var memo = new long[N + 1, M + 1];
for (var m = 0; m <= M; m++) memo[0, m] = 1;
for (var n = 1; n <= N; n++)
{
memo[n, 0] = 0;
for (var m = 1; m <= M; m++) memo[n, m] = (memo[n, m - 1] + (n - m >= 0 ? memo[n - m, m] : 0)) % Mod;
}
return (int)memo[N, M];
}
// max{f(a)+...+f(b-1) | from<=a<b<=to}
// O(to-from)
public static long MaxIntervalSum(int from, int to, Func<long, long> f)
{
long max, dp;
max = dp = f(from);
for (var i = from + 1; i < to; i++)
{
var tmp = f(i);
dp = tmp + Math.Max(0, dp);
max = Math.Max(max, dp);
}
return max;
}
public static int MaxElement<T>(this IEnumerable<T> source, Comparison<T> comp)
{
var p = source.GetEnumerator();
if (!p.MoveNext()) return -1;
var max = p.Current;
var mi = 0;
var i = 0;
while (p.MoveNext())
{
i++;
if (comp(max, p.Current) < 0)
{
max = p.Current;
mi = i;
}
}
return mi;
}
public static int MaxElement<T>(this IEnumerable<T> source) where T : IComparable<T> { return source.MaxElement((x, y) => x.CompareTo(y)); }
public static int MinElement<T>(IEnumerable<T> source, Comparison<T> comp) { return source.MaxElement((x, y) => comp(y, x)); }
public static int MinElement<T>(IEnumerable<T> source) where T : IComparable<T> { return source.MaxElement((x, y) => y.CompareTo(x)); }
public static void Shuffle<T>(IList<T> source, Random rand) { for (var i = source.Count - 1; i >= 0; --i) source.Swap(i, rand.Next(0, i + 1)); }
public static void Shuffle<T>(IList<T> source, RandomSFMT rand) { for (var i = source.Count - 1; i >= 0; --i) source.Swap(i, rand.Next(0, i + 1)); }
public static char NextChar(this Random rand) { return (char)(rand.Next(0, 'z' - 'a' + 1) + 'a'); }
public static char NextChar(this RandomSFMT rand) { return (char)(rand.Next(0, 'z' - 'a' + 1) + 'a'); }
public static string NextString(this Random rand, int length) { return new string(Enumerable.Range(0, length).Select(_ => rand.NextChar()).ToArray()); }
public static string NextString(this RandomSFMT rand, int length) { return new string(Enumerable.Range(0, length).Select(_ => rand.NextChar()).ToArray()); }
public static IEnumerable<T> Rotate<T>(this IEnumerable<T> source)
{
var e = source.GetEnumerator();
if (e.MoveNext())
{
var f = e.Current;
while (e.MoveNext()) yield return e.Current;
yield return f;
}
}
public static T Apply<T>(this Func<T, T> func, T x, int n)
{
var a = x;
for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) a = func(a);
return a;
}
public static void MemberSet<T>(this T[] array, T value)
{
var X = array.Length;
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) array[x] = value;
}
public static void MemberSet<T>(this T[,] array, T value)
{
var X = array.GetLength(0); var Y = array.GetLength(1);
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++) array[x, y] = value;
}
public static void MemberSet<T>(this T[,,] array, T value)
{
var X = array.GetLength(0); var Y = array.GetLength(1); var Z = array.GetLength(2);
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++) for (var z = 0; z < Z; z++) array[x, y, z] = value;
}
public static void MemberSet<T>(this T[,,,] array, T value)
{
var X = array.GetLength(0); var Y = array.GetLength(1); var Z = array.GetLength(2); var W = array.GetLength(3);
for (var x = 0; x < X; x++) for (var y = 0; y < Y; y++) for (var z = 0; z < Z; z++) for (var w = 0; w < W; w++) array[x, y, z, w] = value;
}
public static string ToYesNo(this bool flag) { return flag ? "YES" : "NO"; }
public static int SetToMin(ref int min, int other) { return min = Math.Min(min, other); }
public static int SetToMax(ref int max, int other) { return max = Math.Max(max, other); }
public static long SetToMin(ref long min, long other) { return min = Math.Min(min, other); }
public static long SetToMax(ref long max, long other) { return max = Math.Max(max, other); }
public static Tuple<SortedDictionary<int, int>, SortedDictionary<int, int>> Compress(IEnumerable<int> coord, int width, int X)
{
var tmp = new SortedSet<int>();
foreach (var x in coord)
{
for (var w = -width; w <= width; w++)
if (x + w < 0 || x + w >= X) continue;
else if (tmp.Contains(x + w)) continue;
}
var index = 0;
var inverse = new SortedDictionary<int, int>();
var dict = new SortedDictionary<int, int>();
foreach (var pair in tmp)
{
}
return new Tuple<SortedDictionary<int, int>, SortedDictionary<int, int>>(dict, inverse);
}
public static int MSB(uint n)
{
n |= (n >> 1);
n |= (n >> 2);
n |= (n >> 4);
n |= (n >> 8);
n |= (n >> 16);
return BitCount(n) - 1;
}
public static int BitCount(uint n)
{
n = (n & 0x55555555) + ((n >> 1) & 0x55555555);
n = (n & 0x33333333) + ((n >> 2) & 0x33333333);
n = (n & 0x0f0f0f0f) + ((n >> 4) & 0x0f0f0f0f);
n = (n & 0x00ff00ff) + ((n >> 8) & 0x00ff00ff);
return (int)((n & 0x0000ffff) + ((n >> 16) & 0x0000ffff));
}
public static int LSB(uint n)
{
n |= (n << 1);
n |= (n << 2);
n |= (n << 4);
n |= (n << 8);
n |= (n << 16);
return 32 - BitCount(n);
}
public static int MSB(ulong n)
{
n |= (n >> 1);
n |= (n >> 2);
n |= (n >> 4);
n |= (n >> 8);
n |= (n >> 16);
n |= (n >> 32);
return BitCount(n) - 1;
}
public static int BitCount(ulong n)
{
n = (n & 0x5555555555555555) + ((n >> 1) & 0x5555555555555555);
n = (n & 0x3333333333333333) + ((n >> 2) & 0x3333333333333333);
n = (n & 0x0f0f0f0f0f0f0f0f) + ((n >> 4) & 0x0f0f0f0f0f0f0f0f);
n = (n & 0x00ff00ff00ff00ff) + ((n >> 8) & 0x00ff00ff00ff00ff);
n = (n & 0x0000ffff0000ffff) + ((n >> 16) & 0x0000ffff0000ffff);
return (int)((n & 0x00000000ffffffff) + ((n >> 32) & 0x00000000ffffffff));
}
public static int LSB(ulong n)
{
n |= (n << 1);
n |= (n << 2);
n |= (n << 4);
n |= (n << 8);
n |= (n << 16);
n |= (n << 32);
return 64 - BitCount(n);
}
public static int Abs(this int n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static long Abs(this long n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static double Abs(this double n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static float Abs(this float n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static decimal Abs(this decimal n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static short Abs(this short n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static sbyte Abs(this sbyte n) { return Math.Abs(n); }
public static int Min(params int[] nums) { var min = int.MaxValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Min(min, n); return min; }
public static long Min(params long[] nums) { var min = long.MaxValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Min(min, n); return min; }
public static uint Min(params uint[] nums) { var min = uint.MaxValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Min(min, n); return min; }
public static ulong Min(params ulong[] nums) { var min = ulong.MaxValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Min(min, n); return min; }
public static double Min(params double[] nums) { var min = double.MaxValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Min(min, n); return min; }
public static decimal Min(params decimal[] nums) { var min = decimal.MaxValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Min(min, n); return min; }
public static int Max(params int[] nums) { var min = int.MinValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Max(min, n); return min; }
public static long Max(params long[] nums) { var min = long.MinValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Max(min, n); return min; }
public static uint Max(params uint[] nums) { var min = uint.MinValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Max(min, n); return min; }
public static ulong Max(params ulong[] nums) { var min = ulong.MinValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Max(min, n); return min; }
public static double Max(params double[] nums) { var min = double.MinValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Max(min, n); return min; }
public static decimal Max(params decimal[] nums) { var min = decimal.MinValue; foreach (var n in nums) min = Math.Max(min, n); return min; }
}
class RandomSFMT : Random
{
int index, coin_bits, byte_pos, range, shift;
uint coin_save, byte_save, bse;
protected uint[] x = new uint[40];
static uint[] ParityData = { 0x00000001U, 0x00000000U, 0x00000000U, 0x20000000U };
public virtual void gen_rand_all()
{
int a = 0, b = 28, c = 32, d = 36; uint y; uint[] p = x;
do
{
y = p[a + 3] ^ (p[a + 3] << 24) ^ (p[a + 2] >> 8) ^ ((p[b + 3] >> 5) & 0xb5ffff7fU);
p[a + 3] = y ^ (p[c + 3] >> 8) ^ (p[d + 3] << 14);
y = p[a + 2] ^ (p[a + 2] << 24) ^ (p[a + 1] >> 8) ^ ((p[b + 2] >> 5) & 0xaff3ef3fU);
p[a + 2] = y ^ ((p[c + 2] >> 8) | (p[c + 3] << 24)) ^ (p[d + 2] << 14);
y = p[a + 1] ^ (p[a + 1] << 24) ^ (p[a] >> 8) ^ ((p[b + 1] >> 5) & 0x7fefcfffU);
p[a + 1] = y ^ ((p[c + 1] >> 8) | (p[c + 2] << 24)) ^ (p[d + 1] << 14);
y = p[a] ^ (p[a] << 24) ^ ((p[b] >> 5) & 0xf7fefffdU);
p[a] = y ^ ((p[c] >> 8) | (p[c + 1] << 24)) ^ (p[d] << 14);
c = d; d = a; a += 4; b += 4;
if (b == 40) b = 0;
} while (a != 40);
}
void period_certification()
{
uint work, inner = 0; int i, j;
index = 40; range = 0; coin_bits = 0; byte_pos = 0;
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) inner ^= x[i] & ParityData[i];
for (i = 16; i > 0; i >>= 1) inner ^= inner >> i;
inner &= 1;
if (inner == 1) return;
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++) for (j = 0, work = 1; j < 32; j++, work <<= 1) if ((work & ParityData[i]) != 0) { x[i] ^= work; return; }
}
public void InitMt(uint s)
{
unchecked
{
x[0] = s;
for (uint p = 1; p < 40; p++) x[p] = s = 1812433253 * (s ^ (s >> 30)) + p;
period_certification();
}
}
public RandomSFMT(uint s) { InitMt(s); }
public void InitMtEx(uint[] init_key)
{
uint r, i, j, c, key_len = (uint)init_key.Length;
unchecked
{
for (i = 0; i < 40; i++) x[i] = 0x8b8b8b8b;
if (key_len + 1 > 40) c = key_len + 1; else c = 40;
r = x[0] ^ x[17] ^ x[39]; r = (r ^ (r >> 27)) * 1664525;
x[17] += r; r += key_len; x[22] += r; x[0] = r; c--;
for (i = 1, j = 0; j < c && j < key_len; j++)
{
r = x[i] ^ x[(i + 17) % 40] ^ x[(i + 39) % 40];
r = (r ^ (r >> 27)) * 1664525; x[(i + 17) % 40] += r;
r += init_key[j] + i; x[(i + 22) % 40] += r;
x[i] = r; i = (i + 1) % 40;
}
for (; j < c; j++)
{
r = x[i] ^ x[(i + 17) % 40] ^ x[(i + 39) % 40];
r = (r ^ (r >> 27)) * 1664525; x[(i + 17) % 40] += r; r += i;
x[(i + 22) % 40] += r; x[i] = r; i = (i + 1) % 40;
}
for (j = 0; j < 40; j++)
{
r = x[i] + x[(i + 17) % 40] + x[(i + 39) % 40];
r = (r ^ (r >> 27)) * 1566083941; x[(i + 17) % 40] ^= r;
r -= i; x[(i + 22) % 40] ^= r; x[i] = r; i = (i + 1) % 40;
}
period_certification();
}
}
public RandomSFMT(uint[] init_key) { InitMtEx(init_key); }
public RandomSFMT() : this((uint)(DateTime.Now.Ticks & 0xffffffff)) { }
public uint NextMt() { if (index == 40) { gen_rand_all(); index = 0; } return x[index++]; }
public int NextInt(int n) { return (int)(n * (1.0 / 4294967296.0) * NextMt()); }
public double NextUnif() { uint z = NextMt() >> 11, y = NextMt(); return (y * 2097152.0 + z) * (1.0 / 9007199254740992.0); }
public int NextBit() { if (--coin_bits == -1) { coin_bits = 31; return (int)(coin_save = NextMt()) & 1; } else return (int)(coin_save >>= 1) & 1; }
public int NextByte() { if (--byte_pos == -1) { byte_pos = 3; return (int)(byte_save = NextMt()) & 255; } else return (int)(byte_save >>= 8) & 255; }
public override int Next(int maxValue) { return Next(0, maxValue); }
protected override double Sample() { return NextUnif(); }
public override double NextDouble() { return NextUnif(); }
public override int Next() { return 1 + NextIntEx(int.MaxValue); }
public override void NextBytes(byte[] buffer) { for (var i = 0; i < buffer.Length; i++) buffer[i] = (byte)NextByte(); }
public override int Next(int min, int max) { return min + NextIntEx(max - min); }
public int NextIntEx(int range_)
{
uint y_, base_, remain_; int shift_;
if (range_ <= 0) return 0;
if (range_ != range)
{
bse = (uint)(range = range_);
for (shift = 0; bse <= (1UL << 30); shift++) bse <<= 1;
}
while (true)
{
y_ = NextMt() >> 1;
if (y_ < bse) return (int)(y_ >> shift);
base_ = bse; shift_ = shift; y_ -= base_;
remain_ = (1U << 31) - base_;
for (; remain_ >= (uint)range_; remain_ -= base_)
{
for (; base_ > remain_; base_ >>= 1) shift_--;
if (y_ < base_) return (int)(y_ >> shift_);
else y_ -= base_;
}
}
}
}
```

Submission Info

Submission Time 2016-08-28 22:00:39+0900 D - Digit Sum selpo C# (Mono 4.6.2.0) 500 109248 Byte AC 98 ms 3668 KB

Judge Result

Set Name Sample All
Score / Max Score 0 / 0 500 / 500
Status
 AC × 5
 AC × 47
Set Name Test Cases
Case Name Status Exec Time Memory
subtask1_100000000000_1.txt AC 55 ms 3668 KB
subtask1_100000000000_100000000000.txt AC 87 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_100000000000_2.txt AC 95 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_100000000000_3.txt AC 94 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_100000000000_50000000000.txt AC 93 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_100000000000_50000000001.txt AC 95 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_100000000000_99999999999.txt AC 89 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_16983563041_1.txt AC 50 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_1_1.txt AC 52 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_1_2.txt AC 50 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_1_31415926535.txt AC 52 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_239484768_194586924.txt AC 58 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_2_1.txt AC 55 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_2_2.txt AC 50 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_31415926535_1.txt AC 79 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_49234683534_2461734011.txt AC 82 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_4_1.txt AC 50 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_58640129658_232122496.txt AC 87 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_68719476735_35.txt AC 64 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_68719476735_36.txt AC 49 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_68719476735_37.txt AC 90 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_68719476736_1.txt AC 52 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_68719476736_2.txt AC 52 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_72850192441_16865701.txt AC 90 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_79285169301_27.txt AC 50 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_82914867733_1676425945.txt AC 94 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_8594813796_75700.txt AC 55 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_87654_12345.txt AC 56 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_87654_138.txt AC 52 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_87654_30.txt AC 53 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_87654_4294967308.txt AC 51 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_87654_45678.txt AC 55 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_97822032312_49157112.txt AC 97 ms 3540 KB
subtask1_98750604051_977728851.txt AC 97 ms 3540 KB
subtask1_99999515529_1.txt AC 85 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999515529_316226.txt AC 95 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999515529_316227.txt AC 95 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999515529_316228.txt AC 98 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999515529_49999757765.txt AC 93 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999515529_49999757766.txt AC 93 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999515530_2.txt AC 84 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999999977_1.txt AC 94 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999999977_2.txt AC 94 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999999977_49999999989.txt AC 92 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999999977_49999999990.txt AC 92 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999999999_1.txt AC 94 ms 3412 KB
subtask1_99999999999_100000000000.txt AC 85 ms 3412 KB